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Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 368; doi:10.3390/nu8060368

Influence of Maternal Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Foetal Lipid Profile

1
Research Unit for Multifactorial Disease, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS (Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico), viale di San Paolo 15, Rome 00146, Italy
2
Clinical Epidemiology, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS (Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico), P.zza S. Onofrio 4, Rome 00165, Italy
3
Unit of Human Microbiome, Genetic and Rare Diseases Area, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital, IRCCS (Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico), viale di San Paolo 15, Rome 00146, Italy
4
Department of Obstetrics and Gyneacology, San Camillo Hospital, Circonvallazione Gianicolense 87, Rome 00152, Italy
5
Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca Industriale Agroalimentare, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Piazza Goidanich 60, Cesena 47521, Italy
6
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agro-alimentari, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Piazza Goidanich 60, Cesena 47521, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 February 2016 / Revised: 16 May 2016 / Accepted: 3 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
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Abstract

Fatty acids (FAs) are fundamental for a foetus’s growth, serving as an energy source, structural constituents of cellular membranes and precursors of bioactive molecules, as well as being essential for cell signalling. Long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC-PUFAs) are pivotal in brain and visual development. It is of interest to investigate whether and how specific pregnancy conditions, which alter fatty acid metabolism (excessive pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight gain (GWG)), affect lipid supply to the foetus. For this purpose, we evaluated the erythrocyte FAs of mothers and offspring (cord-blood) at birth, in relation to pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG. A total of 435 mothers and their offspring (237 males, 51%) were included in the study. Distribution of linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), and their metabolites, arachidonic acid, dihomogamma linoleic (DGLA) and ecosapentanoic acid, was significantly different in maternal and foetal erythrocytes. Pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly associated with maternal percentage of MUFAs (Coeff: −0.112; p = 0.021), LA (Coeff: −0.033; p = 0.044) and DHA (Coeff. = 0.055; p = 0.0016); inadequate GWG with DPA (Coeff: 0.637; p = 0.001); excessive GWG with docosaexahenoic acid (DHA) (Coeff. = −0.714; p = 0.004). Moreover, pre-pregnancy BMI was associated with foetus percentage of PUFAs (Coeff: −0.172; p = 0.009), omega 6 (Coeff: −0.098; p = 0.015) and DHA (Coeff: −0.0285; p = 0.036), even after adjusting for maternal lipids. Our findings show that maternal GWG affects maternal but not foetal lipid profile, differently from pre-pregnancy BMI, which influences both. View Full-Text
Keywords: pregnancy; fatty acids; biomagnification; bioattenuation; gestational diabetes; gestational weight gain; obesity pregnancy; fatty acids; biomagnification; bioattenuation; gestational diabetes; gestational weight gain; obesity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cinelli, G.; Fabrizi, M.; Ravà, L.; Ciofi degli Atti, M.; Vernocchi, P.; Vallone, C.; Pietrantoni, E.; Lanciotti, R.; Signore, F.; Manco, M. Influence of Maternal Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Maternal and Foetal Lipid Profile. Nutrients 2016, 8, 368.

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