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Nutrients 2016, 8(6), 365; doi:10.3390/nu8060365

Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

1
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences (SICS), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore 117609, Singapore
2
Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228
3
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 229899, Singapore
4
Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117549, Singapore
5
Medical Research Council Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit and National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service Foundation Trust, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK
6
Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand
7
Department of Paediatrics, KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Singapore 229899, Singapore
8
Department of Paediatrics, Duke-National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, Singapore 169857, Singapore
9
Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 308232, Singapore
10
Departments of Paediatrics, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
11
Division of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Khoo Teck Puat-National University Children’s Medical Institute, National University Hospital, National University Health System, Singapore 119074, Singapore
12
Departments of Pediatrics and of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University Faculty of Medicine, Montreal, QC H3A 1A2, Canada
13
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore 117609, Singapore
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 April 2016 / Revised: 2 June 2016 / Accepted: 6 June 2016 / Published: 15 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients in Infancy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [447 KB, uploaded 15 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup) and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all). Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life. View Full-Text
Keywords: infant dietary patterns; dietary pattern trajectories; first year of life; Asian; factor analysis; multilevel mixed models infant dietary patterns; dietary pattern trajectories; first year of life; Asian; factor analysis; multilevel mixed models
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Lim, G.H.; Toh, J.Y.; Aris, I.M.; Chia, A.-R.; Han, W.M.; Saw, S.M.; Godfrey, K.M.; Gluckman, P.D.; Chong, Y.-S.; Yap, F.; Lee, Y.S.; Kramer, M.S.; Chong, M.F.-F. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort. Nutrients 2016, 8, 365.

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