Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort
AbstractLittle is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup) and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all). Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life. View Full-Text
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Lim, G.H.; Toh, J.Y.; Aris, I.M.; Chia, A.-R.; Han, W.M.; Saw, S.M.; Godfrey, K.M.; Gluckman, P.D.; Chong, Y.-S.; Yap, F.; Lee, Y.S.; Kramer, M.S.; Chong, M.F.-F. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort. Nutrients 2016, 8, 365.
Lim GH, Toh JY, Aris IM, Chia A-R, Han WM, Saw SM, Godfrey KM, Gluckman PD, Chong Y-S, Yap F, Lee YS, Kramer MS, Chong MF-F. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort. Nutrients. 2016; 8(6):365.Chicago/Turabian Style
Lim, Geraldine H.; Toh, Jia Y.; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Chia, Ai-Ru; Han, Wee M.; Saw, Seang M.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung S.; Kramer, Michael S.; Chong, Mary F.-F. 2016. "Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort." Nutrients 8, no. 6: 365.
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