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Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 274; doi:10.3390/nu8050274

Diet Quality and Change in Blood Lipids during 16 Years of Follow-up and Their Interaction with Genetic Risk for Dyslipidemia

1
Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease—Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, SE-20502 Malmö, Sweden
2
Experimental Cardiovascular Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, SE-20502 Malmö, Sweden
3
Internal Medicine Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Inga Marie Nilssons gata 32, SE-20502 Malmö, Sweden
4
Nutritional Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, SE-20502 Malmö, Sweden
5
Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Jan Waldenströms gata 35, SE-20502 Malmö, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 3 May 2016 / Published: 9 May 2016
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Abstract

A high diet quality according to the Swedish nutrition recommendations is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease in the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. To further clarify this protective association, we examined the association between high diet quality and change in triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) after 16 years of follow-up in 3152 individuals (61% women; 46–68 years at baseline). In addition, we examined if genetic risk scores composed of 80 lipid-associated genetic variants modify these associations. A diet quality index based on intakes of saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, sucrose, fiber, fruit and vegetables, and fish was constructed. A high diet quality was associated with lower risk of developing high triglycerides (p = 0.02) and high LDL-C (p = 0.03) during follow-up compared with a low diet quality. We found an association between diet quality and long-term change in HDL-C only among those with lower genetic risk for low HDL-C as opposed to those with higher genetic risk (p-interaction = 0.04). Among those with lower genetic risk for low HDL-C, low diet quality was associated with decreased HDL-C during follow-up (p = 0.05). In conclusion, individuals with high adherence to the Swedish nutrition recommendation had lower risk of developing high triglycerides and LDL-C during 16 years of follow-up. View Full-Text
Keywords: epidemiology; diet; nutrition; genetics; lipids; lipoproteins epidemiology; diet; nutrition; genetics; lipids; lipoproteins
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sonestedt, E.; Hellstrand, S.; Drake, I.; Schulz, C.-A.; Ericson, U.; Hlebowicz, J.; Persson, M.M.; Gullberg, B.; Hedblad, B.; Engström, G.; Orho-Melander, M. Diet Quality and Change in Blood Lipids during 16 Years of Follow-up and Their Interaction with Genetic Risk for Dyslipidemia. Nutrients 2016, 8, 274.

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