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Nutrients 2016, 8(5), 270; doi:10.3390/nu8050270

Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

1
Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, NSW, Australia
2
School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, NSW, Australia
3
Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise & Eating Disorders, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, NSW, Australia
4
Department of Endocrinology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown 2050, NSW, Australia
5
Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney 2145, NSW, Australia
6
The Children’s Hospital at Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, NSW, Australia
7
Department of Statistics, Macquarie University, Sydney 2109, NSW, Australia
8
Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, NSW, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 February 2016 / Revised: 28 April 2016 / Accepted: 28 April 2016 / Published: 6 May 2016
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Abstract

The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal; pregnancy; dietary intake; nutrition; macronutrient; gestational diabetes mellitus; Pea Pod; neonates; body composition maternal; pregnancy; dietary intake; nutrition; macronutrient; gestational diabetes mellitus; Pea Pod; neonates; body composition
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kizirian, N.V.; Markovic, T.P.; Muirhead, R.; Brodie, S.; Garnett, S.P.; Louie, J.C.Y.; Petocz, P.; Ross, G.P.; Brand-Miller, J.C. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition. Nutrients 2016, 8, 270.

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