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Nutrients 2016, 8(4), 217; doi:10.3390/nu8040217

Micronutrient Intakes and Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

1
Nutrition and Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-4763, Iran
2
Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-4741, Iran
3
Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 19395-4763, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 January 2016 / Revised: 13 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 March 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between micronutrient intakes and the 3.6-year incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults. This cohort study was conducted, within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, on 1692 subjects, aged ≥30 years, without CKD at the baseline. Dietary intakes were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire. Anthropometrics and biochemical measurements were taken. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean age of participants was 43.3 ± 11.4 years. In the fully adjusted model, individuals in the top quintile of folate (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24–0.80), cobalamin (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34–0.93), vitamin C (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21–0.69), vitamin E (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22–0.92), vitamin D (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21–0.70), potassium (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23–0.97) and magnesium (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22–0.76) had decreased risk of CKD, and in the top quintile of sodium (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.03–2.61), subjects had increased risk of CKD, in comparison to the bottom quintile. No significant associations were found between the intakes of other micronutrients. High intake of several micronutrients including vitamins C, E, D, cobalamin, folate, magnesium, and potassium was associated with a decreased risk, while sodium was associated with an increased risk of incident CKD. View Full-Text
Keywords: chronic kidney disease; micronutrients; vitamins; minerals chronic kidney disease; micronutrients; vitamins; minerals
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Farhadnejad, H.; Asghari, G.; Mirmiran, P.; Yuzbashian, E.; Azizi, F. Micronutrient Intakes and Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Nutrients 2016, 8, 217.

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