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Nutrients 2016, 8(3), 154; doi:10.3390/nu8030154

Sources of Caffeine in Diets of US Children and Adults: Trends by Beverage Type and Purchase Location

Center for Public Health Nutrition, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
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Received: 19 January 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 10 March 2016
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Abstract

New sources of caffeine, besides coffee and tea, have been introduced into the US food supply. Data on caffeine consumption age and purchase location can help guide public health policy. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to estimate population-level caffeine intakes, using data from 24-h dietary recall. First, caffeine intakes by age-group and beverage type were estimated using the most recent 2011–2012 data (n = 7456). Second, fourteen years trends in caffeine consumption, overall and by beverage type, were evaluated for adults and children. Trend analyses were conducted by age groups. Last, trends in caffeine intakes by purchase location and beverage type were estimated. In 2011–2012, children aged four to eight years consumed the least caffeine (15 mg/day), and adults aged 51–70 years consumed the most (213 mg/day). The population mean (age ≥ four years) was 135 mg/day, driven largely by coffee (90 mg/day), tea (25 mg/day), and soda (21 mg/day). For the 14–19 years and 20–34 years age-groups, energy drinks contributed 6 mg/day (9.9%) and 5 mg/day (4.5%), respectively. The bulk of caffeine came from store-bought coffee and tea. Among both children and adults combined, caffeine intakes declined from 175 mg/day (1999–2000) to 142 mg/day (2011–2012), largely driven by a drop in caffeine from soda (41 mg/day to 21 mg/day). Store-bought coffee and tea remain principal drivers of caffeine intake in the US. Sodas and energy drinks make minor contributions to overall caffeine intakes. View Full-Text
Keywords: caffeine; beverages; children; NHANES; trends caffeine; beverages; children; NHANES; trends
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Drewnowski, A.; Rehm, C.D. Sources of Caffeine in Diets of US Children and Adults: Trends by Beverage Type and Purchase Location. Nutrients 2016, 8, 154.

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