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Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 96; doi:10.3390/nu8020096

Using NMR-Based Metabolomics to Evaluate Postprandial Urinary Responses Following Consumption of Minimally Processed Wheat Bran or Wheat Aleurone by Men and Women

1
The Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health (NICHE), Ulster University, Coleraine BT52 1SA, UK
2
UCD Institute of Food and Health, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 D04V1W8, Ireland
3
Department of Plant Science, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, UK
4
School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire RG6 6AH, UK
5
Computer Information Systems, Faculty of Information and Communication Technology, University of Malta, Msida MSD 2080, Malta
Current address: Department of Food Studies and Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Malta, Msida MSD 2080, Malta
Deceased 7 February 2012
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 November 2015 / Revised: 8 January 2016 / Accepted: 4 February 2016 / Published: 17 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Grains for Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1528 KB, uploaded 17 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Wheat bran, and especially wheat aleurone fraction, are concentrated sources of a wide range of components which may contribute to the health benefits associated with higher consumption of whole-grain foods. This study used NMR metabolomics to evaluate urine samples from baseline at one and two hours postprandially, following the consumption of minimally processed bran, aleurone or control by 14 participants (7 Females; 7 Males) in a randomized crossover trial. The methodology discriminated between the urinary responses of control, and bran and aleurone, but not between the two fractions. Compared to control, consumption of aleurone or bran led to significantly and substantially higher urinary concentrations of lactate, alanine, N-acetylaspartate acid and N-acetylaspartylglutamate and significantly and substantially lower urinary betaine concentrations at one and two hours postprandially. There were sex related differences in urinary metabolite profiles with generally higher hippurate and citrate and lower betaine in females compared to males. Overall, this postprandial study suggests that acute consumption of bran or aleurone is associated with a number of physiological effects that may impact on energy metabolism and which are consistent with longer term human and animal metabolomic studies that used whole-grain wheat diets or wheat fractions. View Full-Text
Keywords: NMR metabolomics; wheat bran; wheat aleurone; energy metabolism; sex differences; urine; lactate; alanine; N-acetylaspartate; N-acetylaspartylglutamate; betaine; hippurate NMR metabolomics; wheat bran; wheat aleurone; energy metabolism; sex differences; urine; lactate; alanine; N-acetylaspartate; N-acetylaspartylglutamate; betaine; hippurate
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Garg, R.; Brennan, L.; Price, R.K.; Wallace, J.M.W.; Strain, J.J.; Gibney, M.J.; Shewry, P.R.; Ward, J.L.; Garg, L.; Welch, R.W. Using NMR-Based Metabolomics to Evaluate Postprandial Urinary Responses Following Consumption of Minimally Processed Wheat Bran or Wheat Aleurone by Men and Women. Nutrients 2016, 8, 96.

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