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Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 77; doi:10.3390/nu8020077

High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women

Nutrition and Food Science Department, College of Home Economics, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, P.O. Box 27938, Riyadh 11427, Saudi Arabia
Received: 12 December 2015 / Revised: 17 January 2016 / Accepted: 28 January 2016 / Published: 4 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Premenopausal Nutrition and Fertility)
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Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50–74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; deficiency; pregnancy; women; Saudi Arabia vitamin D; deficiency; pregnancy; women; Saudi Arabia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Al-Faris, N.A. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women. Nutrients 2016, 8, 77.

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