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Nutrients 2016, 8(2), 75; doi:10.3390/nu8020075

Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy

1
Unit for Nutrition Research, Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland and Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik 101, Iceland
2
Children’s Hospital, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik 101, Iceland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2015 / Revised: 12 January 2016 / Accepted: 27 January 2016 / Published: 4 February 2016
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Abstract

High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels have been observed in infants in Nordic countries, likely due to vitamin D supplement use. Internationally, little is known about tracking vitamin D status from infancy to childhood. Following up 1-year-old infants in our national longitudinal cohort, our aims were to study vitamin D intake and status in healthy 6-year-old Icelandic children (n = 139) and to track vitamin D status from one year of age. At six years, the mean 25(OH)D level was 56.5 nmol/L (SD 17.9) and 64% of children were vitamin D sufficient (25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L). A logistic regression model adjusted for gender and breastfeeding showed that higher total vitamin D intake (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08–1.49), blood samples collected in summer (OR = 8.88, 95% CI = 1.83–43.23) or autumn (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 1.16–27.32) compared to winter/spring, and 25(OH)D at age one (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.002–1.04) were independently associated with vitamin D sufficiency at age six. The correlation between 25(OH)D at age one and six was 0.34 (p = 0.003). Our findings suggest that vitamin D status in infancy, current vitamin D intake and season are predictors of vitamin D status in early school age children. Our finding of vitamin D status tracking from infancy to childhood provides motivation for further studies on tracking and its clinical significance. View Full-Text
Keywords: 25-hydroxyvitamin D; child; dietary supplements; seasons; tracking; vitamin D 25-hydroxyvitamin D; child; dietary supplements; seasons; tracking; vitamin D
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Thorisdottir, B.; Gunnarsdottir, I.; Steingrimsdottir, L.; Palsson, G.I.; Birgisdottir, B.E.; Thorsdottir, I. Vitamin D Intake and Status in 6-Year-Old Icelandic Children Followed up from Infancy. Nutrients 2016, 8, 75.

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