The Sweetener-Sensing Mechanisms of the Ghrelin Cell
AbstractCarbohydrate administration decreases plasma levels of the ‘hunger hormone’ ghrelin. The ghrelin cell is co-localized with the sweet taste receptor subunit, TAS1R3, and the gustatory G-protein, gustducin, both involved in the sensing of sweeteners by entero-endocrine cells. This study investigated the role of gustducin-mediated sweet taste receptor signaling on ghrelin secretion in a gastric ghrelinoma cell line, tissue segments and mice. The monosaccharide d-glucose and low-intensity sweetener oligofructose (OFS) decreased (p < 0.001) ghrelin secretion while the high-intensity sweetener sucralose increased (p < 0.001) ghrelin secretion in vitro. These effects were not mediated via the sweet taste receptor or glucose transporters (the sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter SGLT-1 and GLUT2). The effect of these compounds was mimicked ex vivo in gastric and jejunal segments from both wild type (WT) and α-gustducin knockout (α-gust−/−) mice. In vivo, the sensing of d-glucose was polarized since intragastric but not intravenous administration of d-glucose decreased (p < 0.05) ghrelin levels in an α-gustducin independent manner which involved inhibition of duodenal ghrelin release. In contrast, neither OFS nor sucralose affected ghrelin secretion in vivo. In conclusion, α-gustducin-mediated sweet taste receptor signaling does not play a functional role in the sensing of carbohydrates, or low- or high-intensity sweeteners by the ghrelin cell. View Full-Text
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Steensels, S.; Vancleef, L.; Depoortere, I. The Sweetener-Sensing Mechanisms of the Ghrelin Cell. Nutrients 2016, 8, 795.
Steensels S, Vancleef L, Depoortere I. The Sweetener-Sensing Mechanisms of the Ghrelin Cell. Nutrients. 2016; 8(12):795.Chicago/Turabian Style
Steensels, Sandra; Vancleef, Laurien; Depoortere, Inge. 2016. "The Sweetener-Sensing Mechanisms of the Ghrelin Cell." Nutrients 8, no. 12: 795.
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