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Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 748; doi:10.3390/nu8110748

Effects of Two-Year Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Supplementation on Depressive Symptoms and Quality of Life in Older Adults with Elevated Homocysteine Concentrations: Additional Results from the B-PROOF Study, an RCT

1
EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
4
Department of General Practice and Elderly Care Medicine, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
5
Primary Care Research Center, Institute of Population Health, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, M13 9PL Manchester, UK
6
Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus University Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
7
Department of Psychiatry, VU University Medical Center/GGZ inGeest, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
8
Department of Internal Medicine/Endocrinology, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 September 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue B-Vitamins and One-Carbon Metabolism)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [270 KB, uploaded 23 November 2016]

Abstract

Lowering elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations by supplementing vitamin B12 and folic acid may reduce depressive symptoms and improve health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in older adults. This study aimed to test this hypothesis in a randomized controlled trial. Participants (N = 2919, ≥65 years, Hcy concentrations ≥12 µmol/L) received either 500 µg vitamin B12 and 400 µg folic acid daily or placebo for two years. Both tablets contained 15 µg vitamin D3. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15). HR-QoL was assessed with the SF-12 Mental and Physical component summary scores and the EQ-5D Index score and Visual Analogue Scale. Differences in two-year change scores were analyzed with Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Hcy concentrations decreased more in the intervention group, but two-year change scores of the GDS-15 and three of four HR-QoL measures did not differ between groups. The EQ-5D Index score declined less in the intervention group than in the placebo group (mean change 0.00 vs. −0.02, p = 0.004). In conclusion, two-year supplementation with vitamin B12 and folic acid in older adults with hyperhomocysteinemia showed that lowering Hcy concentrations does not reduce depressive symptoms, but it may have a small positive effect on HR-QoL. View Full-Text
Keywords: homocysteine; hyperhomocysteinemia; depressive symptoms; quality of life; vitamin B12; folic acid; older adults; randomized controlled trial homocysteine; hyperhomocysteinemia; depressive symptoms; quality of life; vitamin B12; folic acid; older adults; randomized controlled trial
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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de Koning, E.J.; van der Zwaluw, N.L.; van Wijngaarden, J.P.; Sohl, E.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E.M.; van Marwijk, H.W.J.; Enneman, A.W.; Swart, K.M.A.; van Dijk, S.C.; Ham, A.C.; van der Velde, N.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Elders, P.J.M.; Lips, P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; van Schoor, N.M.; de Groot, L.C.P.G.M. Effects of Two-Year Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Supplementation on Depressive Symptoms and Quality of Life in Older Adults with Elevated Homocysteine Concentrations: Additional Results from the B-PROOF Study, an RCT. Nutrients 2016, 8, 748.

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