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Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 746; doi:10.3390/nu8110746

Retinol Dehydrogenases Regulate Vitamin A Metabolism for Visual Function

1
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-4965, USA
2
Department of Pharmacology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-4965, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 13 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [829 KB, uploaded 22 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

The visual system produces visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal from dietary vitamin A, all-trans-retinol making this vitamin essential for retinal health and function. These metabolic events are mediated by a sequential biochemical process called the visual cycle. Retinol dehydrogenases (RDHs) are responsible for two reactions in the visual cycle performed in retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells, photoreceptor cells and Müller cells in the retina. RDHs in the RPE function as 11-cis-RDHs, which oxidize 11-cis-retinol to 11-cis-retinal in vivo. RDHs in rod photoreceptor cells in the retina work as all-trans-RDHs, which reduce all-trans-retinal to all-trans-retinol. Dysfunction of RDHs can cause inherited retinal diseases in humans. To facilitate further understanding of human diseases, mouse models of RDHs-related diseases have been carefully examined and have revealed the physiological contribution of specific RDHs to visual cycle function and overall retinal health. Herein we describe the function of RDHs in the RPE and the retina, particularly in rod photoreceptor cells, their regulatory properties for retinoid homeostasis and future therapeutic strategy for treatment of retinal diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: visual cycle; retina; retinal pigmented epithelium; vitamin A; All-trans-retinol; retinol dehydrogenase; fundus albipunctatus visual cycle; retina; retinal pigmented epithelium; vitamin A; All-trans-retinol; retinol dehydrogenase; fundus albipunctatus
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Sahu, B.; Maeda, A. Retinol Dehydrogenases Regulate Vitamin A Metabolism for Visual Function. Nutrients 2016, 8, 746.

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