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Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 670; doi:10.3390/nu8110670

The Energy Content and Composition of Meals Consumed after an Overnight Fast and Their Effects on Diet Induced Thermogenesis: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analyses and Meta-Regressions

1
Discipline of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Sciences, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan 2308, NSW, Australia
2
Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, The University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan 2308, NSW, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 July 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 25 October 2016
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Abstract

This systematic review investigated the effects of differing energy intakes, macronutrient compositions, and eating patterns of meals consumed after an overnight fast on Diet Induced Thermogenesis (DIT). The initial search identified 2482 records; 26 papers remained once duplicates were removed and inclusion criteria were applied. Studies (n = 27) in the analyses were randomized crossover designs comparing the effects of two or more eating events on DIT. Higher energy intake increased DIT; in a mixed model meta-regression, for every 100 kJ increase in energy intake, DIT increased by 1.1 kJ/h (p < 0.001). Meals with a high protein or carbohydrate content had a higher DIT than high fat, although this effect was not always significant. Meals with medium chain triglycerides had a significantly higher DIT than long chain triglycerides (meta-analysis, p = 0.002). Consuming the same meal as a single bolus eating event compared to multiple small meals or snacks was associated with a significantly higher DIT (meta-analysis, p = 0.02). Unclear or inconsistent findings were found by comparing the consumption of meals quickly or slowly, and palatability was not significantly associated with DIT. These findings indicate that the magnitude of the increase in DIT is influenced by the energy intake, macronutrient composition, and eating pattern of the meal. View Full-Text
Keywords: breakfast; meal; overnight fast; energy intake; macronutrient; diet-induced thermogenesis; thermic effect of food; meal-induced thermogenesis; resting metabolic rate breakfast; meal; overnight fast; energy intake; macronutrient; diet-induced thermogenesis; thermic effect of food; meal-induced thermogenesis; resting metabolic rate
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Quatela, A.; Callister, R.; Patterson, A.; MacDonald-Wicks, L. The Energy Content and Composition of Meals Consumed after an Overnight Fast and Their Effects on Diet Induced Thermogenesis: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analyses and Meta-Regressions. Nutrients 2016, 8, 670.

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