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Nutrients 2016, 8(11), 669; doi:10.3390/nu8110669

Serum Retinol Levels in Pregnant Adolescents and Their Relationship with Habitual Food Intake, Infection and Obstetric, Nutritional and Socioeconomic Variables

1
Post-Graduate Program in Food and Nutrition, Federal University of Piauí (UFPI), Teresina 64049550, Piauí, Brazil
2
Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Piauí (UFPI), Teresina 64049550, Piauí, Brazil
3
St. Augustine College, Nutrition Course, Teresina 64019625, Piauí, Brazil
4
Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medical Sciences of the State University of Campinas, Campinas 13083887, São Paulo, Brazil
5
Lipids Lab (LIM10), Endocrinology and Metabolism Division of Hospital das Clinicas, Faculty of Medical Sciences of the University of São Paulo, São Paulo 01246000, São Paulo, Brazil
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 September 2016 / Revised: 10 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 25 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A Update 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [623 KB, uploaded 25 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Globally, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects about 19.1 million pregnant women. Its occurrence is classically associated with inadequate food intake and may also be associated with socioeconomic factors and the presence of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to serum retinol levels among pregnant teenagers. The sample consisted of 89 pregnant adolescents, from whom socioeconomic, obstetric, anthropometric, and food consumption data were collected. Serum concentrations of retinol and the supposed presence of infection were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and C-reactive protein quantification, respectively. The serum retinol concentrations were classified according to the criteria of the World Health Organization. We adopted a 5% significance level for all statistical tests. Serum retinol levels were significantly and positively associated with sanitation (p = 0.008) and pre-gestational nutritional status (p = 0.002), and negatively with the trimester (p = 0.001). The appropriate sanitation conditions and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) were shown to have a protective effect against VAD. Conversely, serum retinol levels were reduced with trimester progression, favoring VAD occurrence. View Full-Text
Keywords: Vitamin A deficiency; vitamin A; pregnancy; pregnancy in adolescence; food consumption; serum retinol Vitamin A deficiency; vitamin A; pregnancy; pregnancy in adolescence; food consumption; serum retinol
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MDPI and ACS Style

Spíndola Garcêz, L.; de Sousa Paz Lima, G.; de Azevedo Paiva, A.; Maria Rebêlo Sampaio da Paz, S.; Lázaro Gomes, E.I.; Nunes, V.S.; Cotta de Faria, E.; de Barros-Mazon, S. Serum Retinol Levels in Pregnant Adolescents and Their Relationship with Habitual Food Intake, Infection and Obstetric, Nutritional and Socioeconomic Variables. Nutrients 2016, 8, 669.

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