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Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 655; doi:10.3390/nu8100655

Vitamin D Status during Pregnancy in a Multi-Ethnic Population-Representative Swedish Cohort

1
Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 40530 Gothenburg, Sweden
2
Medical Research Council Human Nutrition Research, CB19NL Cambridge, UK
3
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University of East Anglia, NR47TJ Norwich, UK
4
Antenatal Care, Närhälsan Primary Care, 41118 Gothenburg, Sweden
5
Antenatal Care, Närhälsan Primary Care, Södra Bohuslän, 41119 Gothenburg, Sweden
6
Gothenburg Technical Institute, 41125 Gothenburg, Sweden
7
Södra Älvsborgs Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 50182 Boras, Sweden
8
Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 41684 Gothenburg, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 August 2016 / Revised: 6 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 22 October 2016
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Abstract

There is currently little information on changes in vitamin D status during pregnancy and its predictors. The aim was to study the determinants of change in vitamin D status during pregnancy and of vitamin D deficiency (<30 nmol/L) in early pregnancy. Blood was drawn in the first (T1) and third trimester (T3). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (N = 1985) was analysed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. Season-corrected 25(OH)D was calculated by fitting cosine functions to the data. Mean (standard deviation) 25(OH)D was 64.5(24.5) nmol/L at T1 and 74.6(34.4) at T3. Mean age was 31.3(4.9) years, mean body mass index (BMI) was 24.5(4.2) kg/m2 and 74% of the women were born in Sweden. Vitamin D deficiency was common among women born in Africa (51%) and Asia (46%) and prevalent in 10% of the whole cohort. Determinants of vitamin D deficiency at T1 were of non-North European origin, and had less sun exposure, lower vitamin D intake and lower age. Season-corrected 25(OH)D increased by 11(23) nmol/L from T1 to T3. The determinants of season-corrected change in 25(OH)D were origin, sun-seeking behaviour, clothing style, dietary vitamin D intake, vitamin D supplementation and recent travel <35° N. In conclusion, season-corrected 25(OH)D concentration increased during pregnancy and depended partly on lifestyle factors. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was low but common among women born in Africa and Asia. Among them, the determinants of both vitamin D deficiency and change in season-corrected vitamin D status were fewer, indicating a smaller effect of sun exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: pregnancy; vitamin D status; vitamin D deficiency; Sweden pregnancy; vitamin D status; vitamin D deficiency; Sweden
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bärebring, L.; Schoenmakers, I.; Glantz, A.; Hulthén, L.; Jagner, Å.; Ellis, J.; Bärebring, M.; Bullarbo, M.; Augustin, H. Vitamin D Status during Pregnancy in a Multi-Ethnic Population-Representative Swedish Cohort. Nutrients 2016, 8, 655.

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