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Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 654; doi:10.3390/nu8100654

Hand-to-Hand Model for Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimate Fat Free Mass in a Healthy Population

1
Sport Science Research Center, National Taiwan University of Sport, Taichung 40404, Taiwan
2
Department of Hospitality, Recreation, and Tourism Management, East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania, East Stroudsburg, PA 18301, USA
3
Department of Physical Education, National Taiwan University of Sport, Taichung 40404, Taiwan
4
Department of Radiology, Jen-Ai Hospital, Taichung 41265, Taiwan
5
Department of Applied Mathematics, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
6
Department of Exercise Science, East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania, East Stroudsburg, PA 18301, USA
7
Office of Physical Education, Tunghai University, Taichung 40704, Taiwan
8
Office of Physical Education and Sport, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan
9
Research Center, Charder Electronic Co., Ltd., Taichung 41262, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 June 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
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Abstract

This study aimed to establish a hand-to-hand (HH) model for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) fat free mass (FFM) estimation by comparing with a standing position hand-to-foot (HF) BIA model and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); we also verified the reliability of the newly developed model. A total of 704 healthy Chinese individuals (403 men and 301 women) participated. FFM (FFMDXA) reference variables were measured using DXA and segmental BIA. Further, regression analysis, Bland–Altman plots, and cross-validation (2/3 participants as the modeling group, 1/3 as the validation group; three turns were repeated for validation grouping) were conducted to compare tests of agreement with FFMDXA reference variables. In male participants, the hand-to-hand BIA model estimation equation was calculated as follows: FFMmHH = 0.537 h2/ZHH − 0.126 year + 0.217 weight + 18.235 (r2 = 0.919, standard estimate of error (SEE) = 2.164 kg, n = 269). The mean validated correlation coefficients and limits of agreement (LOAs) of the Bland–Altman analysis of the calculated values for FFMmHH and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.369–4.343 kg, respectively, for hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for men; the FFM (FFMmHF) and FFMDXA were 0.958 and −4.356–4.375 kg, respectively. The hand-to-hand BIA model estimating equation for female participants was FFMFHH = 0.615 h2/ZHH − 0.144 year + 0.132 weight + 16.507 (r2 = 0.870, SEE = 1.884 kg, n = 201); the three mean validated correlation coefficient and LOA for the hand-to-foot BIA model measurements for female participants (FFMFHH and FFMDXA) were 0.929 and −3.880–3.886 kg, respectively. The FFMHF and FFMDXA were 0.942 and −3.511–3.489 kg, respectively. The results of both hand-to-hand and hand-to-foot BIA models demonstrated similar reliability, and the hand-to-hand BIA models are practical for assessing FFM. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthropometrics; estimate equation; fat free mass (FFM); hand-to-hand (HH); standing position anthropometrics; estimate equation; fat free mass (FFM); hand-to-hand (HH); standing position
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lu, H.-K.; Chiang, L.-M.; Chen, Y.-Y.; Chuang, C.-L.; Chen, K.-T.; Dwyer, G.B.; Hsu, Y.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Hsieh, K.-C. Hand-to-Hand Model for Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to Estimate Fat Free Mass in a Healthy Population. Nutrients 2016, 8, 654.

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