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Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 644; doi:10.3390/nu8100644

Properties of Gluten Intolerance: Gluten Structure, Evolution, Pathogenicity and Detoxification Capabilities

1
Institute of Molecular Medicine, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow 119991, Russia
2
Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 August 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
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Abstract

Theterm gluten intolerance may refer to three types of human disorders: autoimmune celiac disease (CD), allergy to wheat and non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). Gluten is a mixture of prolamin proteins present mostly in wheat, but also in barley, rye and oat. Gluten can be subdivided into three major groups: S-rich, S-poor and high molecular weight proteins. Prolamins within the groups possess similar structures and properties. All gluten proteins are evolutionarily connected and share the same ancestral origin. Gluten proteins are highly resistant to hydrolysis mediated by proteases of the human gastrointestinal tract. It results in emergence of pathogenic peptides, which cause CD and allergy in genetically predisposed people. There is a hierarchy of peptide toxicity and peptide recognition by T cells. Nowadays, there are several ways to detoxify gluten peptides: the most common is gluten-free diet (GFD), which has proved its effectiveness; prevention programs, enzymatic therapy, correction of gluten pathogenicity pathways and genetically modified grains with reduced immunotoxicity. A deep understanding of gluten intolerance underlying mechanisms and detailed knowledge of gluten properties may lead to the emergence of novel effective approaches for treatment of gluten-related disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: gluten; celiac disease; NCGS; wheat allergy; gluten intolerance; gliadin; glutenin; hordein; secalin; avenin gluten; celiac disease; NCGS; wheat allergy; gluten intolerance; gliadin; glutenin; hordein; secalin; avenin
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Balakireva, A.V.; Zamyatnin, A.A. Properties of Gluten Intolerance: Gluten Structure, Evolution, Pathogenicity and Detoxification Capabilities. Nutrients 2016, 8, 644.

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