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Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 629; doi:10.3390/nu8100629

Maternal Diet and Nutrient Requirements in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. An Italian Consensus Document

NFI—Nutrition Foundation of Italy, Milano 20124, Italy
Department of Mother and Child Hospital Luigi Sacco, Center for Fetal Research Giorgio Pardi, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences University of Milan—Italian Society of Perinatal Medicine (SIMP), Milano 20157, Italy
Department of Pediatrics, Department of Health Sciences, San Paolo Hospital, University of Milan—Italian Society of Pediatrics (SIP), Milano 20142, Italy
Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit, S. Cimino Hospital—Italian Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (SIGO), Termini Imerese, Palermo 90018, Italy
Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Department of Health Science, University of Milan—Italian Society of Pediatric Nutrition (SINUPE), Milano 20142, Italy
Division of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Maternal and Child Department, Cannizzaro Hospital—Italian Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (SIGO), Catania 95126, Italy
Department of Sciences for Health Promotion and Mother and Child Care, University of Palermo—Italian Society of Pediatrics (SIP), Palermo 90127, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 19 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [258 KB, uploaded 14 October 2016]


The importance of lifestyle and dietary habits during pregnancy and breastfeeding, for health of mothers and their offspring, is widely supported by the most recent scientific literature. The consumption of a varied and balanced diet from the preconceptional period is essential to ensure both maternal well-being and pregnancy outcomes. However, the risk of inadequate intakes of specific micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation is high even in the most industrialized countries. This particularly applies to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), iron, iodine, calcium, folic acid, and vitamin D, also in the Italian population. Moreover, the risk of not reaching the adequate nutrient supply is increased for selected groups of women of childbearing age: those following exclusion diets, underweight or overweight/obese, smokers, adolescents, mothers who have had multiple or close pregnancies, and those with previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutrient requirement; pregnancy; breastfeeding; adequate intake; DHA; micronutrients nutrient requirement; pregnancy; breastfeeding; adequate intake; DHA; micronutrients
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Marangoni, F.; Cetin, I.; Verduci, E.; Canzone, G.; Giovannini, M.; Scollo, P.; Corsello, G.; Poli, A. Maternal Diet and Nutrient Requirements in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. An Italian Consensus Document. Nutrients 2016, 8, 629.

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