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Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 619; doi:10.3390/nu8100619

Effects of Almond- and Olive Oil-Based Docosahexaenoic- and Vitamin E-Enriched Beverage Dietary Supplementation on Inflammation Associated to Exercise and Age

1
Research Groupon Community Nutrition and Oxidative Stress, Science Laboratory of Physical Activity, Department of Fundamental Biology and Health Sciences, University of Balearic Islands, Crtra, Valldemossa, Palma de Mallorca 07122, Illes Balears, Spain
2
CIBER: CB12/03/30038 Fisiopatología de la Obesidad la Nutrición, CIBEROBN, Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), University of Balearic Islands, Palma de Mallorca 07122, Illes Balears, Spain
3
Departamento de Nutrición y Dietética, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4070386, Chile
4
Sports Physiology Department CAR, Barcelona, 08174 Sant Cugat del Vallés, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 13 September 2016 / Accepted: 22 September 2016 / Published: 9 October 2016
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Abstract

n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols are potential key factors for the treatment and prevention of chronic inflammation associated to ageing and non-communicable diseases. The aim was to analyse effects of an almond and olive oil beverage enriched with α-tocopherol and docosahexaenoic, exercise and age on inflammatory plasma markers, and immune gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Five young and five senior athletes who were supplemented for five weeks with a functional beverage performed a stress test under controlled conditions before and after beverage supplementation. Blood samples were taken immediately before and 1 h after each test. Plasma, erythrocytes and PBMCs were isolated. Beverage supplementation increased plasmatic Tumour Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) levels depending on age and exercise. Exercise increased plasma non esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), soluble Intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (sICAM3) and soluble L-selectin (sL-Selectin), and this increase was attenuated by the supplementation. Exercise increased PGE2 plasma levels in supplemented young and in senior placebo athletes. Exercise increased NFkβ-activated levels in PBMCs, which are primed to a pro-inflammatory response increasing pro-inflammatory genes expression after the exercise mainly in the young group after the supplementation. The functional beverage supplementation to young athletes enhances a pro-inflammatory circulating environment in response to the exercise that was less evident in the senior group. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammation; docosahexaenoic acid; cytokines; physical performance; polyphenol; vitamin E inflammation; docosahexaenoic acid; cytokines; physical performance; polyphenol; vitamin E
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MDPI and ACS Style

Capó, X.; Martorell, M.; Sureda, A.; Riera, J.; Drobnic, F.; Tur, J.A.; Pons, A. Effects of Almond- and Olive Oil-Based Docosahexaenoic- and Vitamin E-Enriched Beverage Dietary Supplementation on Inflammation Associated to Exercise and Age. Nutrients 2016, 8, 619.

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