Next Article in Journal
Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Korean Adolescents According to the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III and International Diabetes Federation
Previous Article in Journal
Lycopene, Lutein and Zeaxanthin May Reduce Faecal Blood, Mucus and Pus but not Abdominal Pain in Individuals with Ulcerative Colitis
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 614; doi:10.3390/nu8100614

Plasma Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinol in the Age-Stratified (35–74 Years) General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries

1
Institute of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart 70599, Germany
2
Institute of Nutrition, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena 07743, Germany
3
Department of Molecular Toxicology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (DIfE), Nuthetal 14558, Germany
4
National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), BA Bilthoven 3721, The Netherlands
5
Institute for Biomedical Aging Research, Leipold-Franzens-University, Innsbruck 6020, Austria
6
Institute for Nutritional Sciences and Physiology, University for Health Sciences, Hall in Tirol 6060, Austria
7
Unit of Cellular Biochemistry and Biology, University of Namur, Namur 5000, Belgium
8
BioTeSys GmbH, Esslingen 73728, Germany
9
Institute of Biological Research and Biotechnology, National Hellenic Research Foundation (NHRF), Athens 11635, Greece
10
Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Bologna, Bologna 40126, Italy
11
Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw 02-093, Poland
12
Molecular Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz 78457, Germany
13
Department of Applied Nutritional Science/Dietetics, Institute of Nutritional Medicine, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart 70599, Germany
14
German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Munich-Neuherberg 85764, Germany
15
German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Berlin 13357, Germany
16
NutriAct-Competence Cluster Nutrition Research Berlin-Potsdam, Nuthetal 14458, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 July 2016 / Revised: 26 September 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 30 September 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [982 KB, uploaded 30 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Blood micronutrient status may change with age. We analyzed plasma carotenoids, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol and their associations with age, demographic characteristics, and dietary habits (assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire) in a cross-sectional study of 2118 women and men (age-stratified from 35 to 74 years) of the general population from six European countries. Higher age was associated with lower lycopene and α-/β-carotene and higher β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol levels. Significant correlations with age were observed for lycopene (r = −0.248), α-tocopherol (r = 0.208), α-carotene (r = −0.112), and β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.125; all p < 0.001). Age was inversely associated with lycopene (−6.5% per five-year age increase) and this association remained in the multiple regression model with the significant predictors (covariables) being country, season, cholesterol, gender, smoking status, body mass index (BMI (kg/m2)), and dietary habits. The positive association of α-tocopherol with age remained when all covariates including cholesterol and use of vitamin supplements were included (1.7% vs. 2.4% per five-year age increase). The association of higher β-cryptoxanthin with higher age was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for fruit consumption, whereas the inverse association of α-carotene with age remained in the fully adjusted multivariable model (−4.8% vs. −3.8% per five-year age increase). We conclude from our study that age is an independent predictor of plasma lycopene, α-tocopherol, and α-carotene. View Full-Text
Keywords: carotenoids; plasma; age; Europe; micronutrients; lycopene; retinol; tocopherols carotenoids; plasma; age; Europe; micronutrients; lycopene; retinol; tocopherols
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Stuetz, W.; Weber, D.; Dollé, M.E.T.; Jansen, E.; Grubeck-Loebenstein, B.; Fiegl, S.; Toussaint, O.; Bernhardt, J.; Gonos, E.S.; Franceschi, C.; Sikora, E.; Moreno-Villanueva, M.; Breusing, N.; Grune, T.; Bürkle, A. Plasma Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinol in the Age-Stratified (35–74 Years) General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries. Nutrients 2016, 8, 614.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top