Early Life Nutrition and Energy Balance Disorders in Offspring in Later Life
AbstractThe global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to changes in diet and lifestyle; namely increased intake of calorically dense foods and concomitant reductions in physical activity. Epidemiological studies in humans and controlled animal intervention studies have now shown that nutritional programming in early periods of life is a phenomenon that affects metabolic and physiological functions throughout life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. The mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring remain poorly defined. However there is evidence from intervention studies which indicate altered wiring of the hypothalamic circuits that regulate energy balance and epigenetic effects including altered DNA methylation of key adipokines including leptin. Studies that elucidate the mechanisms behind these associations will have a positive impact on the health of future populations and adopting a life course perspective will allow identification of phenotype and markers of risk earlier, with the possibility of nutritional and other lifestyle interventions that have obvious implications for prevention of non-communicable diseases. View Full-Text
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Reynolds, C.M.; Gray, C.; Li, M.; Segovia, S.A.; Vickers, M.H. Early Life Nutrition and Energy Balance Disorders in Offspring in Later Life. Nutrients 2015, 7, 8090-8111.
Reynolds CM, Gray C, Li M, Segovia SA, Vickers MH. Early Life Nutrition and Energy Balance Disorders in Offspring in Later Life. Nutrients. 2015; 7(9):8090-8111.Chicago/Turabian Style
Reynolds, Clare M.; Gray, Clint; Li, Minglan; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Vickers, Mark H. 2015. "Early Life Nutrition and Energy Balance Disorders in Offspring in Later Life." Nutrients 7, no. 9: 8090-8111.