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Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7676-7690; doi:10.3390/nu7095362

Increased PUFA Content and 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Expression Are Associated with Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes

1
Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands
2
Einthoven Laboratory for Experimental Vascular Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands
3
Center of Proteomics and Metabolomics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands
4
Department of Medicine, division Endocrinology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden 2300 RC, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 August 2015 / Revised: 3 September 2015 / Accepted: 7 September 2015 / Published: 11 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Abstract

Obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have more inflammation in their subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) than age-and-BMI similar obese women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). We aimed to investigate whether WAT fatty acids and/or oxylipins are associated with the enhanced inflammatory state in WAT of the T2DM women. Fatty acid profiles were measured in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (vWAT) of 19 obese women with NGT and 16 age-and-BMI similar women with T2DM. Oxylipin levels were measured in sWAT of all women. Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) percentages were higher in sWAT, but not vWAT of the T2DM women, and AA correlated positively to the gene expression of macrophage marker CD68. We found tendencies for higher oxylipin concentrations of the 5-LOX leukotrienes in sWAT of T2DM women. Gene expression of the 5-LOX leukotriene biosynthesis pathway was significantly higher in sWAT of T2DM women. In conclusion, AA and DHA content were higher in sWAT of T2DM women and AA correlated to the increased inflammatory state in sWAT. Increased AA content was accompanied by an upregulation of the 5-LOX pathway and seems to have led to an increase in the conversion of AA into proinflammatory leukotrienes in sWAT. View Full-Text
Keywords: leukotrienes; arachidonic acid; omega-3 fatty acids; lipidomics; gene expression leukotrienes; arachidonic acid; omega-3 fatty acids; lipidomics; gene expression
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Heemskerk, M.M.; Giera, M.; Bouazzaoui, F.E.; Lips, M.A.; Pijl, H.; van Dijk, K.W.; van Harmelen, V. Increased PUFA Content and 5-Lipoxygenase Pathway Expression Are Associated with Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Women with Type 2 Diabetes. Nutrients 2015, 7, 7676-7690.

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