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Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7543-7561; doi:10.3390/nu7095352

Involvement of the Niacin Receptor GPR109a in the LocalControl of Glucose Uptake in Small Intestine of Type 2Diabetic Mice

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 August 2015 / Revised: 18 August 2015 / Accepted: 26 August 2015 / Published: 8 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1111 KB, uploaded 8 September 2015]   |  


Niacin is a popular nutritional supplement known to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by enhancing high-density lipoprotein levels. Despite such health benefits, niacin impairs fasting blood glucose. In type 2 diabetes (T2DM), an increase in jejunal glucose transport has been well documented; however, this is intriguingly decreased during niacin deficient state. In this regard, the role of the niacin receptor GPR109a in T2DM jejunal glucose transport remains unknown. Therefore, the effects of diabetes and high-glucose conditions on GPR109a expression were studied using jejunal enterocytes of 10-week-old m+/db and db/db mice, as well as Caco-2 cells cultured in 5.6 or 25.2 mM glucose concentrations. Expression of the target genes and proteins were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Glucose uptake in Caco-2 cells and everted mouse jejunum was measured using liquid scintillation counting. 10-week T2DM increased mRNA and protein expression levels of GPR109a in jejunum by 195.0% and 75.9%, respectively, as compared with the respective m+/db control; high-glucose concentrations increased mRNA and protein expression of GPR109a in Caco-2 cells by 130.2% and 69.0%, respectively, which was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, the enhanced GPR109a expression in jejunal enterocytes of T2DM mice and high-glucose treated Caco-2 cells suggests that GPR109a is involved in elevating intestinal glucose transport observed in diabetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: enterocytes; jejunum; glucose transport; SGLT1; GLUT2; Caco-2; hyperglycemia; hyperlipidemia enterocytes; jejunum; glucose transport; SGLT1; GLUT2; Caco-2; hyperglycemia; hyperlipidemia

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wong, T.P.; Chan, L.K.Y.; Leung, P.S. Involvement of the Niacin Receptor GPR109a in the LocalControl of Glucose Uptake in Small Intestine of Type 2Diabetic Mice. Nutrients 2015, 7, 7543-7561.

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