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Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7209-7230; doi:10.3390/nu7095332

The Diverse Forms of Lactose Intolerance and the Putative Linkage to Several Cancers

1
Department of Physiological Chemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany
2
The Research Center for Emerging Infections and Zoonosis (RIZ), University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 July 2015 / Revised: 7 August 2015 / Accepted: 21 August 2015 / Published: 28 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lactose Intolerance: Biology, Genetics and Dietary Management)
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Abstract

Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is a membrane glycoprotein and the only β-galactosidase of the brush border membrane of the intestinal epithelium. Besides active transcription, expression of the active LPH requires different maturation steps of the polypeptide through the secretory pathway, including N- and O-glycosylation, dimerization and proteolytic cleavage steps. The inability to digest lactose due to insufficient lactase activity results in gastrointestinal symptoms known as lactose intolerance. In this review, we will concentrate on the structural and functional features of LPH protein and summarize the cellular and molecular mechanism required for its maturation and trafficking. Then, different types of lactose intolerance are discussed, and the molecular aspects of lactase persistence/non-persistence phenotypes are investigated. Finally, we will review the literature focusing on the lactase persistence/non-persistence populations as a comparative model in order to determine the protective or adverse effects of milk and dairy foods on the incidence of colorectal, ovarian and prostate cancers. View Full-Text
Keywords: lactase-phlorizin hydrolase; alactasia; adult type of hypolactasia; lactose intolerance; colorectal cancer; ovarian cancer; prostate cancer lactase-phlorizin hydrolase; alactasia; adult type of hypolactasia; lactose intolerance; colorectal cancer; ovarian cancer; prostate cancer
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Amiri, M.; Diekmann, L.; von Köckritz-Blickwede, M.; Naim, H.Y. The Diverse Forms of Lactose Intolerance and the Putative Linkage to Several Cancers. Nutrients 2015, 7, 7209-7230.

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