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Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7172-7184; doi:10.3390/nu7095328

Association of Parental Environmental Exposures and Supplementation Intake with Risk of Nonsyndromic Orofacial Clefts: A Case-Control Study in Heilongjiang Province, China

1
Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, 122 Youzheng Street, Nangang District, Harbin 150000, China
2
Department of Stomatology, Harbin Children's Hospital, 57 Youyi Road, Daoli District, Harbin 150000, China
3
Department of Medical Administration, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, 246 Xuefu Road, Nangang District, Harbin 150000, China
4
Department of Stomatology, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, 37 Yiyuan Street, Nangang District, Harbin 150000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2015 / Revised: 11 August 2015 / Accepted: 20 August 2015 / Published: 27 August 2015
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Abstract

The aim of present study was to check the possible association of potential parental environmental exposures and maternal supplementation intake with the risk of nonsyndromic orofacial clefting (NSOC). A retrospective study comprised 499 cases and 480 controls was conducted in Heilongjiang Province. Chi-square analysis and unconditional multiple logistic regression were used in the study. The results showed that maternal history of fever and the common cold without fever (ORCL/P = 3.11 and 5.56, 95%CI: 1.67–5.82 and 2.96–10.47, ORCPO = 3.31 and 8.23, 95%CI: 1.58–6.94 and 4.08–16.95), paternal smoking and alcohol consumption (ORCL/P = 2.15 and 5.04, 95%CI: 1.37–3.38 and 3.00–8.46, ORCPO = 1.82 and 4.40, 95%CI: 1.06–3.13 and 2.50–7.74), maternal exposure to organic solvents, heavy metals, or pesticides (ORCL/P = 6.07, 5.67 and 5.97, 95%CI: 1.49–24.76, 1.34–24.09 and 2.10–16.98, ORCPO = 10.65, 7.28 and 3.48, 95%CI: 2.54–44.67, 1.41–37.63 and 1.06–11.46) and multivitamin use during the preconception period (ORCL/P = 0.06, 95%CI: 0.02–0.23, ORCPO = 0.06, 95%CI: 0.01–0.30) were associated with cleft lip or without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate only (CPO). Maternal history of skin disease and negative life events (ORCL/P = 12.07 and 1.67, 95%CI: 1.81–80.05 and 1.95–2.67) were associated with CL/P. Some potential parental hazardous exposures during the periconception period and maternal use of multivitamins during the preconception period were associated with risk of NSOC. View Full-Text
Keywords: nonsyndromic orofacial clefts; environmental exposures; passive smoking; toxic occupational exposure; multivitamin use; folic acid nonsyndromic orofacial clefts; environmental exposures; passive smoking; toxic occupational exposure; multivitamin use; folic acid
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hao, Y.; Tian, S.; Jiao, X.; Mi, N.; Zhang, B.; Song, T.; An, L.; Zheng, X.; Zhuang, D. Association of Parental Environmental Exposures and Supplementation Intake with Risk of Nonsyndromic Orofacial Clefts: A Case-Control Study in Heilongjiang Province, China. Nutrients 2015, 7, 7172-7184.

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