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Nutrients 2015, 7(9), 7143-7162; doi:10.3390/nu7095329

The Role of Gluten in Celiac Disease and Type 1 Diabetes

1
Center for Celiac Research, Mucosal Immunology and Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Massachusetts General Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114, USA
2
Graduate Program in Life Sciences, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 June 2015 / Revised: 10 August 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 26 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten Related Disorders: People Shall not Live on Bread Alone)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [250 KB, uploaded 26 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

Celiac disease (CD) and type 1 diabetes (T1D) are autoimmune conditions in which dietary gluten has been proven or suggested to play a pathogenic role. In CD; gluten is established as the instigator of autoimmunity; the autoimmune process is halted by removing gluten from the diet; which allows for resolution of celiac autoimmune enteropathy and subsequent normalization of serological markers of the disease. However; an analogous causative agent has not yet been identified for T1D. Nevertheless; the role of dietary gluten in development of T1D and the potentially beneficial effect of removing gluten from the diet of patients with T1D are still debated. In this review; we discuss the comorbid occurrence of CD and T1D and explore current evidences for the specific role of gluten in both conditions; specifically focusing on current evidence on the effect of gluten on the immune system and the gut microbiota. View Full-Text
Keywords: celiac disease; type 1 diabetes; gluten celiac disease; type 1 diabetes; gluten
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Serena, G.; Camhi, S.; Sturgeon, C.; Yan, S.; Fasano, A. The Role of Gluten in Celiac Disease and Type 1 Diabetes. Nutrients 2015, 7, 7143-7162.

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