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Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6974-6990; doi:10.3390/nu7085317

Development of a Food Group-Based Diet Score and Its Association with Bone Mineral Density in the Elderly: The Rotterdam Study

1
Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, P.O. box 2040, 3000 CA, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, P.O. box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands
3
Department of Global Public Health, Leiden University College The Hague, P.O. box 13228, 2501 EE, The Hague, The Netherlands
4
Department of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P.O. box 8129, 6700 EV, Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 June 2015 / Revised: 31 July 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health)
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Abstract

No diet score exists that summarizes the features of a diet that is optimal for bone mineral density (BMD) in the elderly. Our aims were (a) to develop a BMD-Diet Score reflecting a diet that may be beneficial for BMD based on the existing literature, and (b) to examine the association of the BMD-Diet Score and the Healthy Diet Indicator, a score based on guidelines of the World Health Organization, with BMD in Dutch elderly participating in a prospective cohort study, the Rotterdam Study (n = 5144). Baseline dietary intake, assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, was categorized into food groups. Food groups that were consistently associated with BMD in the literature were included in the BMD-Diet Score. BMD was measured repeatedly and was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD-Diet Score considered intake of vegetables, fruits, fish, whole grains, legumes/beans and dairy products as “high-BMD” components and meat and confectionary as “low-BMD” components. After adjustment, the BMD-Diet Score was positively associated with BMD (β (95% confidence interval) = 0.009 (0.005, 0.012) g/cm2 per standard deviation). This effect size was approximately three times as large as has been observed for the Healthy Diet Indicator. The food groups included in our BMD-Diet Score could be considered in the development of future dietary guidelines for healthy ageing. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary patterns; bone mineral density; BMD-Diet score; healthy diet indicator dietary patterns; bone mineral density; BMD-Diet score; healthy diet indicator
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

de Jonge, E.A.; Jong, J.C.-D.; de Groot, L.C.; Voortman, T.; Schoufour, J.D.; Zillikens, M.C.; Hofman, A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Franco, O.H.; Rivadeneira, F. Development of a Food Group-Based Diet Score and Its Association with Bone Mineral Density in the Elderly: The Rotterdam Study. Nutrients 2015, 7, 6974-6990.

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