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Nutrients 2015, 7(8), 6375-6389; doi:10.3390/nu7085290

Postprandial Effect of a High-Fat Meal on Endotoxemia in Arab Women with and without Insulin-Resistance-Related Diseases

1
Division of Biomedical Sciences, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV2 2DX, UK
2
Department of Community Health Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
3
Biomarkers Research Program, Riyadh Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
4
Prince Mutaib Chair for Biomarkers of Osteoporosis, Biochemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
5
Obesity Research Center, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia
6
Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia
7
Clinical Chemistry Unit, Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh 11461, Saudi Arabia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 June 2015 / Revised: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 4 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Metabolic Dysfunction)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [199 KB, uploaded 4 August 2015]

Abstract

This study determined the effects of a high-fat meal on circulating endotoxin and cardiometabolic indices in adult Arab women. The cohort consisted of 92 consenting Saudi women (18 non-diabetic (ND)) control subjects; Age 24.4 ± 7.9 year; body mass index (BMI) 22.2 ± 2.2 Kg/m2), 24 overweight/obese (referred to as overweight-plus (overweight+)) subjects (Age 32.0 ± 7.8 year; BMI 28.5 ± 1.5 Kg/m2) and 50 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (Age 41.5 ± 6.2 year; BMI 35.2 ± 7.7 Kg/m2). All were given a high-fat meal (standardized meal: 75 g fat, 5 g carbohydrate, 6 g protein) after an overnight fast of 12–14 h. Anthropometrics were obtained and fasting blood glucose, lipids, and endotoxin were serially measured for four consecutive postprandial hours. Endotoxin levels were significantly elevated prior to a high-fat meal in the overweight+ and T2DM than the controls (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the postprandial cardiometabolic changes led to a more detrimental risk profile in T2DM subjects than other groups, with serial changes most notable in glucose, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), and insulin levels (p-values < 0.05). The same single meal given to subjects with different metabolic states had varying impacts on cardiometabolic health. Endotoxemia is exacerbated by a high-fat meal in Arab subjects with T2DM, accompanied by a parallel increase in cardiometabolic risk profile, suggesting disparity in disease pathogenesis of those with or without T2DM through the altered cardiometabolic risk profile rather than variance in metabolic endotoxinaemia with a high-fat meal. View Full-Text
Keywords: endotoxin; type 2 diabetes mellitus; Arab women; high fat meal endotoxin; type 2 diabetes mellitus; Arab women; high fat meal
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Disi, D.A.; Al-Daghri, N.M.; Khan, N.; Alfadda, A.A.; Sallam, R.M.; Alsaif, M.; Sabico, S.; Tripathi, G.; McTernan, P.G. Postprandial Effect of a High-Fat Meal on Endotoxemia in Arab Women with and without Insulin-Resistance-Related Diseases. Nutrients 2015, 7, 6375-6389.

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