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Nutrients 2015, 7(7), 5497-5514; doi:10.3390/nu7075233

A Dietary Pattern Derived by Reduced Rank Regression is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in An Urban Ghanaian Population

1
Department of Molecular Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116, 14558 Nuthetal, Germany
2
Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, School of Medical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
3
Institute of Tropical Medicine and International Health, Charité–University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 May 2015 / Revised: 24 June 2015 / Accepted: 26 June 2015 / Published: 7 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Pattern and Health)
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Abstract

Reduced rank regression (RRR) is an innovative technique to establish dietary patterns related to biochemical risk factors for type 2 diabetes, but has not been applied in sub-Saharan Africa. In a hospital-based case-control study for type 2 diabetes in Kumasi (diabetes cases, 538; controls, 668) dietary intake was assessed by a specific food frequency questionnaire. After random split of our study population, we derived a dietary pattern in the training set using RRR with adiponectin, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides as responses and 35 food items as predictors. This pattern score was applied to the validation set, and its association with type 2 diabetes was examined by logistic regression. The dietary pattern was characterized by a high consumption of plantain, cassava, and garden egg, and a low intake of rice, juice, vegetable oil, eggs, chocolate drink, sweets, and red meat; the score correlated positively with serum triglycerides and negatively with adiponectin. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of type 2 diabetes for the highest quintile compared to the lowest was 4.43 (95% confidence interval: 1.87–10.50, p for trend < 0.001). The identified dietary pattern increases the odds of type 2 diabetes in urban Ghanaians, which is mainly attributed to increased serum triglycerides. View Full-Text
Keywords: adiponectin; biomarker; dietary pattern; HDL-cholesterol; reduced rank regression; sub-Saharan Africa; triglyceride; type 2 diabetes adiponectin; biomarker; dietary pattern; HDL-cholesterol; reduced rank regression; sub-Saharan Africa; triglyceride; type 2 diabetes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Frank, L.K.; Jannasch, F.; Kröger, J.; Bedu-Addo, G.; Mockenhaupt, F.P.; Schulze, M.B.; Danquah, I. A Dietary Pattern Derived by Reduced Rank Regression is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes in An Urban Ghanaian Population. Nutrients 2015, 7, 5497-5514.

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