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Nutrients 2015, 7(5), 3724-3738; doi:10.3390/nu7053724

Evaluation of Drinks Contribution to Energy Intake in Summer and Winter

Unit of Human Nutrition, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos St., Athens 11855, Greece
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Received: 24 February 2015 / Revised: 24 April 2015 / Accepted: 4 May 2015 / Published: 15 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Energy Balance)
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Abstract

All drinks hydrate and most also provide nutrients and energy. Our objective was to evaluate the contribution of drinks to total energy intake in summer and winter. Data were obtained using the Water Balance Questionnaire (WBQ) from a sample of the general population in Athens, Greece (n = 984), 473 individuals (42 ± 18 years) in summer and 511 individuals (38 ± 20 years) in winter stratified by sex and age. The WBQ embeds a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire of 58 foods and the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data were analyzed for the contribution of drinks to total energy intake. In winter, total energy intake was 2082 ± 892 kcal/day; energy intake from drinks was 479 ± 286 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1860 ± 390 kcal/day. In summer, total energy intake was 1890 ± 894 kcal/day, energy intake from drinks 492 ± 499 kcal/day and energy expenditure 1830 ± 491 kcal/day. Energy intake from drinks in summer was higher than in winter (p < 0.001) and in men higher than in women in both seasons (p < 0.001 in summer, p = 0.02 in winter). Coffee, coffee drinks, milk, chocolate milk and alcoholic drinks contributed approximately 75% of energy from drinks. Fruit juice and sugar-sweetened drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juice based drinks, were consumed less frequently contributing up to 25% of drink energy intake. Drinks contribute approximately 1/4 of total energy intake depending on the energy content of the drink and frequency of consumption. Coffee, dairy and alcoholic drinks were the main energy contributors. View Full-Text
Keywords: water balance questionnaire WBQ; winter; summer; hydration; sugar-sweetened drinks; drink water balance questionnaire WBQ; winter; summer; hydration; sugar-sweetened drinks; drink
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Malisova, O.; Bountziouka, V.; Zampelas, A.; Kapsokefalou, M. Evaluation of Drinks Contribution to Energy Intake in Summer and Winter. Nutrients 2015, 7, 3724-3738.

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