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Nutrients 2015, 7(4), 2839-2849; doi:10.3390/nu7042839

Dietary Gut Microbial Metabolites, Short-chain Fatty Acids, and Host Metabolic Regulation

1
Department of Applied Biological Science, Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509, Japan
2
Department of Genetic Biochemistry, Kyoto University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
3
Department of Pharmacogenomics, Kyoto University Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 January 2015 / Revised: 29 March 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 14 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiome and Human Health)
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Abstract

During feeding, the gut microbiota contributes to the host energy acquisition and metabolic regulation thereby influencing the development of metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, butyrate, and propionate, which are produced by gut microbial fermentation of dietary fiber, are recognized as essential host energy sources and act as signal transduction molecules via G-protein coupled receptors (FFAR2, FFAR3, OLFR78, GPR109A) and as epigenetic regulators of gene expression by the inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC). Recent evidence suggests that dietary fiber and the gut microbial-derived SCFAs exert multiple beneficial effects on the host energy metabolism not only by improving the intestinal environment, but also by directly affecting various host peripheral tissues. In this review, we summarize the roles of gut microbial SCFAs in the host energy regulation and present an overview of the current understanding of its physiological functions. View Full-Text
Keywords: SCFA; gut microbiota; energy metabolism; GPR41; GPR43 SCFA; gut microbiota; energy metabolism; GPR41; GPR43
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Kasubuchi, M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hiramatsu, T.; Ichimura, A.; Kimura, I. Dietary Gut Microbial Metabolites, Short-chain Fatty Acids, and Host Metabolic Regulation. Nutrients 2015, 7, 2839-2849.

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