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Nutrients 2015, 7(4), 2622-2647; doi:10.3390/nu7042622

Dried Pomegranate Potentiates Anti-Osteoporotic and Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Clover Dry Extracts in Ovariectomized Rats

1
The Medical Research Center for Globalization of Herbal Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 712-715, Korea
2
Department of Preventive medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, 1, Hannydaero, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 712-715, Korea
3
Research Institute, Health-Love Co., Ltd., Anyang, 431-060, Korea
4
Department of Korean Obstetrics & Gynecology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Daegu, 704-123, Korea
5
Department of Histology and Anatomy, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, 1, Hannydaero, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 712-715, Korea
6
Department of Medical History & Literature Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon, 305-811, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 January 2015 / Revised: 10 March 2015 / Accepted: 2 April 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
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Abstract

Red clover (RC) shows potential activity against menopausal symptoms and pomegranates have antioxidative and beneficial effects on postmenopausal symptoms; thus, we investigated whether the anti-climacteric activity of RC could be enhanced by the addition of dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP) extracts in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Regarding the anti-osteoporotic effects, bone mineral density increased significantly in OVX induced rats treated with 60 and 120 mg/kg of an RC:PCP 2:1 mixture, respectively, compared with OVX control rats. Additionally, femoral, tibia, and L4 bone resorption was decreased in OVX induced control rats treated with the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture (60 and 120 mg/kg), respectively, compared with OVX control rats. Regarding anti-obesity effects, the OVX induced rats treated with 60 and 120 mg/kg of the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture showed a decrease in total fat pad thickness, the mean diameters of adipocytes and the body weights gain compared with OVX induced control rats. The estradiol and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly increased in OVX induced rats treated with the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture (120 mg/kg) compared with OVX induced control rats, also, the uterine atrophy was significantly inhibited in 60 and 120 mg/kg of the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture treatment compared with OVX control rats. In conclusion, our results indicate that PCP enhanced the anti-climacteric effects of RC in OVX rats. The RC:PCP 2:1 mixture used in this study may be a promising new potent and protective agent for relieving climacteric symptoms. View Full-Text
Keywords: red clover extracts; dried pomegranate concentrate powder; 2:1 mixture; anti-climacteric effects; ovariectomy; rats red clover extracts; dried pomegranate concentrate powder; 2:1 mixture; anti-climacteric effects; ovariectomy; rats
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Kang, S.J.; Choi, B.R.; Kim, S.H.; Yi, H.Y.; Park, H.R.; Kim, D.C.; Choi, S.H.; Han, C.H.; Park, S.J.; Song, C.H.; Ku, S.K.; Lee, Y.J. Dried Pomegranate Potentiates Anti-Osteoporotic and Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Clover Dry Extracts in Ovariectomized Rats. Nutrients 2015, 7, 2622-2647.

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