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Nutrients 2015, 7(4), 2382-2400; doi:10.3390/nu7042382

Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy in Relation to Offspring Forearm Fractures: Prospective Study from the Danish National Birth Cohort

1
Centre for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institute, 2300 Copenhagen, Denmark
2
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, 1958 Frederiksberg, Denmark
3
Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Copenhagen University Hospital, 2820 Gentofte, Denmark
4
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
5
Department of Endocrinology, Aalborg University Hospital, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark
6
Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark
7
Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, 1958 Frederiksberg, Denmark
8
Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Iceland, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 January 2015 / Revised: 9 February 2015 / Accepted: 26 February 2015 / Published: 2 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Bone Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [248 KB, uploaded 2 April 2015]   |  

Abstract

Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) during 1996–2002. Maternal diet was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were analyzed between seven dietary patterns extracted by principal component analysis and offspring first occurrence of any forearm fracture diagnosis, extracted from the Danish National Patient Register, between time of birth and end of follow-up (<16 year) (n = 53,922). In multivariable Cox regression models, offspring of mothers in the fourth vs. first quintile of the Western pattern had a significant increased risk (Hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.01–1.23) of fractures, and there was a borderline significant positive trend (p = 0.06). The other dietary patterns showed no associations and neither did supplementary analyses of macro- and micronutrients or single food groups, except for the intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks, which was positively associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02). In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future research. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal diet; dietary patterns; bone fractures; epidemiology; pregnancy; fetal programming; artificial sweetener maternal diet; dietary patterns; bone fractures; epidemiology; pregnancy; fetal programming; artificial sweetener
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Petersen, S.B.; Rasmussen, M.A.; Olsen, S.F.; Vestergaard, P.; Mølgaard, C.; Halldorsson, T.I.; Strøm, M. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy in Relation to Offspring Forearm Fractures: Prospective Study from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Nutrients 2015, 7, 2382-2400.

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