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Nutrients 2015, 7(4), 2101-2108; doi:10.3390/nu7042101

L-Glutamine and Whole Protein Restore First-Phase Insulin Response and Increase Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

1
Diabetes & Metabolism Division, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst 2010, Sydney, NSW, Australia
2
Faculty of Medicine, UNSW Australia, High Street, Kensington 2052, Sydney, NSW, Australia
3
NNF Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Panum Institute, Nørregade 10, DK-1165 Copenhagen, Denmark
4
Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Center, St. Vincent's Hospital, 390 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst 2010, Sydney, NSW, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 January 2015 / Revised: 10 March 2015 / Accepted: 12 March 2015 / Published: 24 March 2015
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Abstract

l-glutamine triggers glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release from L cells in vitro and when ingested pre-meal, decreases postprandial glycaemia and increases circulating insulin and GLP-1 in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. We aimed to evaluate the effect of oral l-glutamine, compared with whole protein low in glutamine, on insulin response in well-controlled T2D patients. In a randomized study with a crossover design, T2D patients (n = 10, 6 men) aged 65.1 ± 5.8, with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 6.6% ± 0.7% (48 ± 8 mmol/mol), received oral l-glutamine (25 g), protein (25 g) or water, followed by an intravenous glucose bolus (0.3 g/kg) and hyperglycemic glucose clamp for 2 h. Blood was frequently collected for analyses of glucose, serum insulin and plasma total and active GLP-1 and area under the curve of glucose, insulin, total and active GLP-1 excursions calculated. Treatments were tested 1–2 weeks apart. Both l-glutamine and protein increased first-phase insulin response (p ≤ 0.02). Protein (p = 0.05), but not l-glutamine (p = 0.2), increased second-phase insulin response. Total GLP-1 was increased by both l-glutamine and protein (p ≤ 0.02). We conclude that oral l-glutamine and whole protein are similarly effective in restoring first-phase insulin response in T2D patients. Larger studies are required to further investigate the utility of similar approaches in improving insulin response in diabetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: glutamine; insulin response; hyperglycemic glucose clamp; type 2 diabetes glutamine; insulin response; hyperglycemic glucose clamp; type 2 diabetes
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Samocha-Bonet, D.; Chisholm, D.J.; Holst, J.J.; Greenfield, J.R. L-Glutamine and Whole Protein Restore First-Phase Insulin Response and Increase Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 in Type 2 Diabetes Patients. Nutrients 2015, 7, 2101-2108.

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