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Nutrients 2015, 7(3), 1933-1944; doi:10.3390/nu7031933

Vitamin D Status and Acute Respiratory Infection: Cross Sectional Results from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2006

1
Tulane School of Public Health & Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
2
Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
3
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA
4
Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA
5
Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA
6
Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 January 2015 / Revised: 13 February 2015 / Accepted: 5 March 2015 / Published: 13 March 2015
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Abstract

Vitamin D is a promising, though under-explored, potential modifiable risk factor for acute respiratory infections (ARIs). We sought to investigate the association of vitamin D status with ARI in a large, nationally-representative sample of non-institutionalized individuals from the United States. We analyzed 14,108 individuals over 16 years of age in the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) 2001–2006 in this cross-sectional study. We used locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOWESS) to depict the relationship between increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and ARI. We then performed a multivariable regression analysis to investigate the association of 25OHD levels with ARI, while adjusting for known confounders. The median serum 25OHD level was 21 (IQR 15–27) ng/mL. Overall, 4.8% (95% CI: 4.5–5.2) of participants reported an ARI within 30 days before their participation in the national survey. LOWESS analysis revealed a near-linear relationship between vitamin D status and the cumulative frequency of ARI up to 25OHD levels around 30 ng/mL. After adjusting for season, demographic factors, and clinical data, 25OHD levels <30 ng/mL were associated with 58% higher odds of ARI (OR 1.58; 95% CI: 1.07–2.33) compared to levels ≥30 ng/mL. Among the 14,108 participants in NHANES 2001–2006, 25OHD levels were inversely associated with ARI. Carefully designed, randomized, controlled trials are warranted to determine the effect of optimizing vitamin D status on the risk of ARI. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; 25OHD; respiratory; infection vitamin D; 25OHD; respiratory; infection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Monlezun, D.J.; Bittner, E.A.; Christopher, K.B.; Camargo, C.A., Jr.; Quraishi, S.A. Vitamin D Status and Acute Respiratory Infection: Cross Sectional Results from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2001–2006. Nutrients 2015, 7, 1933-1944.

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