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Nutrients 2015, 7(12), 10189-10208; doi:10.3390/nu7125527

Optimal Vitamin D Supplementation Doses that Minimize the Risk for Both Low and High Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in the General Population

School of Public Health, University of Alberta, 350 University Terrace, Edmonton, AB T6G 2T4, Canada
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Received: 18 August 2015 / Revised: 6 November 2015 / Accepted: 27 November 2015 / Published: 4 December 2015
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Abstract

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is the nutrient intake considered to be sufficient to meet the requirements of 97.5% of the population. Recent reports revealed a statistical error in the calculation of the RDA for vitamin D opening the question of what the recommendation should be. We took a dual approach to answer this question: (1) we aggregated 108 published estimates on vitamin D supplementation and vitamin D status; and (2) we analyzed 13,987 observations of program participants. The aggregation of published data revealed that 2909 IU of vitamin D per day is needed to achieve serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations of 50 nmol/L or more in 97.5% of healthy individuals. For normal weight, overweight and obese program participants this was 3094, 4450 and 7248 IU respectively. These supplementation doses would also result in 2.5% of normal weight, overweight and obese participants having 25(OH)D concentrations above 210, 200 and 214 nmol/L respectively. As these concentrations are high, an approach that minimizes the risk for both low and high concentrations seems desirable. With this approach we estimated, for example, that doses of 1885, 2802 and 6235 IU per day are required for normal weight, overweight and obese individuals respectively to achieve natural 25(OH)D concentrations (defined as 58 to 171 nmol/L). In conclusion, the large extent of variability in 25(OH)D concentrations makes a RDA for vitamin D neither desirable nor feasible. We therefore propose recommendations be articulated in the form of an optimal intake that minimizes the risk for both low and high serum 25(OH)D concentrations. This contribution includes body weight specific recommendations for optimal intakes for various combinations of lower and upper 25(OH)D concentration targets. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; recommended daily allowance; vitamin D supplementation; disease prevention; public health; nutrition; optimal vitamin D intake; optimal vitamin D status vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; recommended daily allowance; vitamin D supplementation; disease prevention; public health; nutrition; optimal vitamin D intake; optimal vitamin D status
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Veugelers, P.J.; Pham, T.-M.; Ekwaru, J.P. Optimal Vitamin D Supplementation Doses that Minimize the Risk for Both Low and High Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in the General Population. Nutrients 2015, 7, 10189-10208.

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