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Nutrients 2015, 7(11), 9116-9126; doi:10.3390/nu7115456

Mediterranean Alcohol-Drinking Pattern and the Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease and Cardiovascular Mortality: The SUN Project

1
Department of Cardiology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, 31009 Pamplona, Spain
2
Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain
3
CIBER Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
4
IdiSNA, Navarra Institute for Health Research, 31008 Pamplona, Navarra, Spain
5
Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Laureate International Universities, 28029 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 September 2015 / Revised: 25 October 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 5 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Consumption and Human Health)
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Abstract

Background: We assessed the still unclear effect of the overall alcohol-drinking pattern, beyond the amount of alcohol consumed, on the incidence of cardiovascular clinical disease (CVD). Methods: We followed 14,651 participants during up to 14 years. We built a score assessing simultaneously seven dimensions of alcohol consumption to capture the conformity to a traditional Mediterranean alcohol-drinking pattern (MADP). It positively scored moderate alcohol intake, alcohol intake spread out over the week, low spirit consumption, preference for wine, red wine consumption, wine consumed during meals and avoidance of binge drinking. Results: During 142,177 person-years of follow-up, 127 incident cases of CVD (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular mortality) were identified. Compared with the category of better conformity with the MADP, the low-adherence group exhibited a non-significantly higher risk (HR) of total CVD ((95% CI) = 1.55 (0.58–4.16)). This direct association with a departure from the traditional MADP was even stronger for cardiovascular mortality (HR (95% CI) = 3.35 (0.77–14.5)). Nevertheless, all these associations were statistically non-significant. Conclusion: Better conformity with the MADP seemed to be associated with lower cardiovascular risk in most point estimates; however, no significant results were found and more powered studies are needed to clarify the role of the MADP on CVD. View Full-Text
Keywords: alcohol; Mediterranean drinking pattern; cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular mortality; cohort studies alcohol; Mediterranean drinking pattern; cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular mortality; cohort studies
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hernandez-Hernandez, A.; Gea, A.; Ruiz-Canela, M.; Toledo, E.; Beunza, J.-J.; Bes-Rastrollo, M.; Martinez-Gonzalez, M.A. Mediterranean Alcohol-Drinking Pattern and the Incidence of Cardiovascular Disease and Cardiovascular Mortality: The SUN Project. Nutrients 2015, 7, 9116-9126.

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