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Nutrients 2015, 7(11), 9453-9474; doi:10.3390/nu7115475

The Subtle Balance between Lipolysis and Lipogenesis: A Critical Point in Metabolic Homeostasis

1
Cardiometabolic Risk Unit, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, via Moruzzi, 1 56124 Pisa, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Chimica e Farmacia, Università di Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Patologia Chirurgica, Molecolare Medica e di Area Critica, Università di Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 July 2015 / Revised: 19 October 2015 / Accepted: 29 October 2015 / Published: 13 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fatty Acids in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes)
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Abstract

Excessive accumulation of lipids can lead to lipotoxicity, cell dysfunction and alteration in metabolic pathways, both in adipose tissue and peripheral organs, like liver, heart, pancreas and muscle. This is now a recognized risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, such as obesity, diabetes, fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The causes for lipotoxicity are not only a high fat diet but also excessive lipolysis, adipogenesis and adipose tissue insulin resistance. The aims of this review are to investigate the subtle balances that underlie lipolytic, lipogenic and oxidative pathways, to evaluate critical points and the complexities of these processes and to better understand which are the metabolic derangements resulting from their imbalance, such as type 2 diabetes and non alcoholic fatty liver disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: lipotoxicity; lipolysis; de novo lipogenesis; glyceroneogenesis; fatty liver; NAFLD; ectopic fat; HCC; SCD-1; saturated fat lipotoxicity; lipolysis; de novo lipogenesis; glyceroneogenesis; fatty liver; NAFLD; ectopic fat; HCC; SCD-1; saturated fat
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Saponaro, C.; Gaggini, M.; Carli, F.; Gastaldelli, A. The Subtle Balance between Lipolysis and Lipogenesis: A Critical Point in Metabolic Homeostasis. Nutrients 2015, 7, 9453-9474.

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