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Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8456-8477; doi:10.3390/nu7105406

In Vitro Bioaccessibility, Human Gut Microbiota Metabolites and Hepatoprotective Potential of Chebulic Ellagitannins: A Case of Padma Hepaten® Formulation

1
Laboratory of Medical and Biological Research, Institute of General and Experimental Biology, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Science, Sakh’yanovoy Street 6, Ulan-Ude 670-047, Russia
2
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, North-Eastern Federal University, 58 Belinsky Street, Yakutsk 677-027, Russian
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 August 2015 / Revised: 22 September 2015 / Accepted: 30 September 2015 / Published: 13 October 2015
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Abstract

Chebulic ellagitannins (ChET) are plant-derived polyphenols containing chebulic acid subunits, possessing a wide spectrum of biological activities that might contribute to health benefits in humans. The herbal formulation Padma Hepaten containing ChETs as the main phenolics, is used as a hepatoprotective remedy. In the present study, an in vitro dynamic model simulating gastrointestinal digestion, including dialysability, was applied to estimate the bioaccessibility of the main phenolics of Padma Hepaten. Results indicated that phenolic release was mainly achieved during the gastric phase (recovery 59.38%–97.04%), with a slight further release during intestinal digestion. Dialysis experiments showed that dialysable phenolics were 64.11% and 22.93%–26.05% of their native concentrations, respectively, for gallic acid/simple gallate esters and ellagitanins/ellagic acid, in contrast to 20.67% and 28.37%–55.35% for the same groups in the non-dialyzed part of the intestinal media. Investigation of human gut microbiota metabolites of Padma Hepaten and pure ChETs (chebulinic, chebulagic acids) established the formation of bioactive urolithins (A, B, C, D, M5). The fact of urolithin formation during microbial transformation from ChETs and ChET-containing plant material was revealed for the first time. Evaluation of the protective effect of ChETs colonic metabolites and urolithins on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury in cultured rat primary hepatocytes demonstrated their significant reversion of the t-BHP-induced cell cytotoxicity, malonic dialdehyde production and lactate dehydrogenase leakage. The most potent compound was urolithin C with close values of hepatoprotection to gallic acid. The data obtained indicate that in the case of Padma Hepaten, we speculate that urolithins have the potential to play a role in the hepatic prevention against oxidative damage. View Full-Text
Keywords: Padma Hepaten; chebulic ellagitannins; bioaccessibility; human gut microbiota; urolithins; Tibetan medicine; Bras Bu; Triphala; hepatoprotective activity Padma Hepaten; chebulic ellagitannins; bioaccessibility; human gut microbiota; urolithins; Tibetan medicine; Bras Bu; Triphala; hepatoprotective activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Olennikov, D.N.; Kashchenko, N.I.;  Chirikova, N.K. In Vitro Bioaccessibility, Human Gut Microbiota Metabolites and Hepatoprotective Potential of Chebulic Ellagitannins: A Case of Padma Hepaten® Formulation. Nutrients 2015, 7, 8456-8477.

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