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Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8366-8375; doi:10.3390/nu7105398

Vitamin D Deficiency Increases the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

1
Department of Labor Hygiene and Environmental Health, School of Public Health of Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China
2
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 September 2015 / Revised: 20 September 2015 / Accepted: 23 September 2015 / Published: 1 October 2015
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Abstract

The results investigating the relationship between vitamin D levels and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are inconsistent. Thus, we focused on evaluating the association of vitamin D deficiency with GDM by conducting a meta-analysis of observed studies. A systematic literature search was conducted via PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane library to identify eligible studies before August 2015. The meta-analysis of 20 studies including 9209 participants showed that women with vitamin D deficiency experienced a significantly increased risk for developing GDM (odds ratio (OR) = 1.53; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.33, 1.75) with a little heterogeneity (I2 = 16.20%, p = 0.252). A noteworthy decrease of 4.93 nmol/L (95% CI, −6.73, −3.14) in serum 25(OH)D was demonstrated in the participants with GDM, and moderate heterogeneity was observed (I2 = 61.40%, p = 0.001). Subgroup analysis with study design showed that there were obvious heterogeneities in nested case–control studies (I2 > 52.5%, p < 0.07). Sensitivity analysis showed that exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the overall combined effect. In summary, the evidence from this meta-analysis indicates a consistent association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of GDM. However, well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to elicit the clear effect of vitamin D supplementation on prevention of GDM. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D deficiency; gestational diabetes mellitus; pregnancy; meta-analysis vitamin D deficiency; gestational diabetes mellitus; pregnancy; meta-analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, M.-X.; Pan, G.-T.; Guo, J.-F.; Li, B.-Y.; Qin, L.-Q.; Zhang, Z.-L. Vitamin D Deficiency Increases the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies. Nutrients 2015, 7, 8366-8375.

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