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Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8335-8347; doi:10.3390/nu7105396

Effect of Probiotic Supplement on Cytokine Levels in HIV-Infected Individuals: A Preliminary Study

1
Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine and Science of Aging, University "G. d'Annunzio" Chieti-Pescara, 6610 Chieti, Italy
2
Laboratory of Biostatistics, Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University "G. d'Annunzio" Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
3
Unit of Immunodiagnostic and Molecular Pathology, Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences, University "G. d'Annunzio" Chieti-Pescara, 66100 Chieti, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 June 2015 / Revised: 31 July 2015 / Accepted: 21 September 2015 / Published: 28 September 2015
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Abstract

Inflammation persists in patients infected with HIV. Reduction of inflammatory cytokines and microbial translocation might be one way that this could be managed. Purpose: The anti-inflammatory properties of certain probiotic strains prompted us to investigate whether a probiotic could reduce the inflammatory index of HIV-infected patients. Methods: The study involved 30 HIV+ males on antiretroviral therapy, who were given one bottle of fermented milk Yakult Light® containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) twice a day for four weeks. Results: The probiotic LcS was associated with an increase of T lymphocytes and a significant increase of CD56+ cells (p = 0.04). There was also a significant decrease of mRNA levels of TGFβ, IL-10 and IL-12 (p < 0.001) and IL-1β expression (p < 0.001) and an increase of serum IL-23 (p = 0.03). In addition, decreased inflammation and cardiovascular risk were observed, as shown by a reduction of cystatin C (p < 0.001). Conclusions: These data provide preliminary evidence that probiotic supplementation may modulate certain immunological parameters and some of the cytokines that were analyzed. Thus, we propose that LcS may be an inexpensive and practical strategy to support the immune function of HIV+ patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lactobacillus casei Shirota; dietary supplements; nutrition; AIDS; ART; inflammation Lactobacillus casei Shirota; dietary supplements; nutrition; AIDS; ART; inflammation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Falasca, K.; Vecchiet, J.; Ucciferri, C.; Di Nicola, M.; D'Angelo, C.; Reale, M. Effect of Probiotic Supplement on Cytokine Levels in HIV-Infected Individuals: A Preliminary Study. Nutrients 2015, 7, 8335-8347.

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