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Nutrients 2014, 6(8), 3303-3325; doi:10.3390/nu6083303
Review

Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases and Nutrition

1
, 2
 and 3,*
Received: 9 May 2014; in revised form: 6 August 2014 / Accepted: 7 August 2014 / Published: 21 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutritional Epigenetics)
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Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as a pathologic accumulation of fat in the form of triglycerides (TG) in the liver (steatosis) that is not caused by alcohol. A subgroup of NAFLD patients shows liver cell injury and inflammation coupled with the excessive fat accumulation (steatohepatitis), which is referred to as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Patients with NASH may develop cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NAFLD shares the key features of metabolic syndrome including obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance. The pathogenesis of NAFLD is multi-factorial, however the oxidative stress seems to plays a major role in the development and progression of the disease. The emerging field of epigenetics provides a new perspective on the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Epigenetics is an inheritable but reversible phenomenon that affects gene expression without altering the DNA sequence and refers to DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs. Epigenetic manipulation through metabolic pathways such as one-carbon metabolism has been proposed as a promising approach to retard the progression of NAFLD. Investigating the epigenetic modifiers in NAFLD may also lead to the development of preventive or therapeutic strategies for NASH-associated complications.
Keywords: epigenetics; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); one-carbon metabolism; nutrition epigenetics; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); one-carbon metabolism; nutrition
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.H.; Friso, S.; Choi, S.-W. Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases and Nutrition. Nutrients 2014, 6, 3303-3325.

AMA Style

Lee JH, Friso S, Choi S-W. Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases and Nutrition. Nutrients. 2014; 6(8):3303-3325.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Joo H.; Friso, Simonetta; Choi, Sang-Woon. 2014. "Epigenetic Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Diseases and Nutrition." Nutrients 6, no. 8: 3303-3325.



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