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Nutrients 2014, 6(8), 3050-3061; doi:10.3390/nu6083050

24-Hour Glucose Profiles on Diets Varying in Protein Content and Glycemic Index

Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, P.O. Box 616, 6200MD Maastricht, The Netherlands
Received: 8 May 2014 / Revised: 11 July 2014 / Accepted: 14 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sugar and Obesity)
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Abstract

Evidence is increasing that the postprandial state is an important factor contributing to the risk of chronic diseases. Not only mean glycemia, but also glycemic variability has been implicated in this effect. In this exploratory study, we measured 24-h glucose profiles in 25 overweight participants in a long-term diet intervention study (DIOGENES study on Diet, Obesity and Genes), which had been randomized to four different diet groups consuming diets varying in protein content and glycemic index. In addition, we compared 24-h glucose profiles in a more controlled fashion, where nine other subjects followed in random order the same four diets differing in carbohydrate content by 10 energy% and glycemic index by 20 units during three days. Meals were provided in the lab and had to be eaten at fixed times during the day. No differences in mean glucose concentration or glucose variability (SD) were found between diet groups in the DIOGENES study. In the more controlled lab study, mean 24-h glucose concentrations were also not different. Glucose variability (SD and CONGA1), however, was lower on the diet combining a lower carbohydrate content and GI compared to the diet combining a higher carbohydrate content and GI. These data suggest that diets with moderate differences in carbohydrate content and GI do not affect mean 24-h or daytime glucose concentrations, but may result in differences in the variability of the glucose level in healthy normal weight and overweight individuals View Full-Text
Keywords: glycemic index; glycemic load; mean 24-h glucose concentration; glucose variability; continuous glucose monitoring glycemic index; glycemic load; mean 24-h glucose concentration; glucose variability; continuous glucose monitoring
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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van Baak, M.A. 24-Hour Glucose Profiles on Diets Varying in Protein Content and Glycemic Index. Nutrients 2014, 6, 3050-3061.

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