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Nutrients 2014, 6(12), 5853-5870; doi:10.3390/nu6125853

The Protective Effect of Rhizoma Dioscoreae Extract against Alveolar Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats via Regulating Wnt and p38 MAPK Signaling

1
Institute of Basic Theory, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China
2
School of Pharmaceutical Science, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
3
Functional Genomics and Proteomics Laboratory, Osteoporosis Research Center, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68131, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 September 2014 / Revised: 28 November 2014 / Accepted: 2 December 2014 / Published: 12 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Bone Health)
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Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of aqueous Rhizoma Dioscoreae extract (RDE) on the alveolar bone of rats with ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Methods: Female Wistar rats were subjected to either ovariectomy or a sham operation (SHAM). The ovariectomized (OVX) rats were treated with vehicle (OVX) or RDE by oral gavage or with 17β-estradiol (E2) subcutaneously. After treatments, the bone mineral density (BMD), the three-dimensional bone architecture of the alveolar bone and the plasma biomarkers of bone turnover were analyzed to assess bone metabolism, and the histomorphometry of the alveolar bone was observed. Microarrays were used to evaluate gene expression profiles in alveolar bone from RDE-treated and OVX rats. The differential expression of genes was further analyzed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). The key findings were verified using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Results: Our results showed that RDE inhibited alveolar bone loss in OVX rats. Compared to the OVX rats, the RDE-treated rats showed upregulated expression levels of 207 genes and downregulated expression levels of 176 genes in the alveolar bone. The IPA showed that several genes had the potential to code for proteins that were involved in the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway (Wnt7a, Fzd2, Tcf3, Spp1, Frzb, Sfrp2 and Sfrp4) and the p38 MAPK signaling pathway (Il1rn and Mapk14). Conclusion: These experiments revealed that RDE could inhibit ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone loss in rats. The mechanism of this anti-osteopenic effect in alveolar bone may be involved in the reduced abnormal bone remodeling, which is associated with the modulation of the Wnt/β-catenin and the p38 MAPK signaling pathways via gene regulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: alveolar bone loss; gene expression profile; herbal medicine; ovariectomized rats; Rhizoma Dioscoreae alveolar bone loss; gene expression profile; herbal medicine; ovariectomized rats; Rhizoma Dioscoreae
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Z.; Xiang, L.; Bai, D.; Wang, W.; Li, Y.; Pan, J.; Liu, H.; Wang, S.; Xiao, G.G.; Ju, D. The Protective Effect of Rhizoma Dioscoreae Extract against Alveolar Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats via Regulating Wnt and p38 MAPK Signaling. Nutrients 2014, 6, 5853-5870.

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