Nutrients 2013, 5(8), 3034-3061; doi:10.3390/nu5083034

Out of Balance—Systemic Iron Homeostasis in Iron-Related Disorders

1,* email and 2,3email
Received: 18 June 2013; in revised form: 16 July 2013 / Accepted: 19 July 2013 / Published: 2 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Iron and Human Health)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Iron is an essential element in our daily diet. Most iron is required for the de novo synthesis of red blood cells, where it plays a critical role in oxygen binding to hemoglobin. Thus, iron deficiency causes anemia, a major public health burden worldwide. On the other extreme, iron accumulation in critical organs such as liver, heart, and pancreas causes organ dysfunction due to the generation of oxidative stress. Therefore, systemic iron levels must be tightly balanced. Here we focus on the regulatory role of the hepcidin/ferroportin circuitry as the major regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. We discuss how regulatory cues (e.g., iron, inflammation, or hypoxia) affect the hepcidin response and how impairment of the hepcidin/ferroportin regulatory system causes disorders of iron metabolism.
Keywords: iron regulation; hepcidin; anemia; iron overload
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MDPI and ACS Style

Steinbicker, A.U.; Muckenthaler, M.U. Out of Balance—Systemic Iron Homeostasis in Iron-Related Disorders. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3034-3061.

AMA Style

Steinbicker AU, Muckenthaler MU. Out of Balance—Systemic Iron Homeostasis in Iron-Related Disorders. Nutrients. 2013; 5(8):3034-3061.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Steinbicker, Andrea U.; Muckenthaler, Martina U. 2013. "Out of Balance—Systemic Iron Homeostasis in Iron-Related Disorders." Nutrients 5, no. 8: 3034-3061.

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