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Out of Balance—Systemic Iron Homeostasis in Iron-Related Disorders
Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, University Hospital Muenster, University of Muenster, Muenster 48149, Germany
Department of Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Immunology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg 69120, Germany
Molecular Medicine Partnership Unit (MMPU), Heidelberg 69120, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 June 2013; in revised form: 16 July 2013 / Accepted: 19 July 2013 / Published: 2 August 2013
Abstract: Iron is an essential element in our daily diet. Most iron is required for the de novo synthesis of red blood cells, where it plays a critical role in oxygen binding to hemoglobin. Thus, iron deficiency causes anemia, a major public health burden worldwide. On the other extreme, iron accumulation in critical organs such as liver, heart, and pancreas causes organ dysfunction due to the generation of oxidative stress. Therefore, systemic iron levels must be tightly balanced. Here we focus on the regulatory role of the hepcidin/ferroportin circuitry as the major regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. We discuss how regulatory cues (e.g., iron, inflammation, or hypoxia) affect the hepcidin response and how impairment of the hepcidin/ferroportin regulatory system causes disorders of iron metabolism.
Keywords: iron regulation; hepcidin; anemia; iron overload
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Steinbicker, A.U.; Muckenthaler, M.U. Out of Balance—Systemic Iron Homeostasis in Iron-Related Disorders. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3034-3061.
Steinbicker AU, Muckenthaler MU. Out of Balance—Systemic Iron Homeostasis in Iron-Related Disorders. Nutrients. 2013; 5(8):3034-3061.
Steinbicker, Andrea U.; Muckenthaler, Martina U. 2013. "Out of Balance—Systemic Iron Homeostasis in Iron-Related Disorders." Nutrients 5, no. 8: 3034-3061.