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Nutrients, Volume 5, Issue 6 (June 2013), Pages 1840-2267

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Sodium Intakes of US Children and Adults from Foods and Beverages by Location of Origin and by Specific Food Source
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 1840-1855; doi:10.3390/nu5061840
Received: 5 March 2013 / Revised: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 28 May 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (777 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Sodium intakes, from foods and beverages, of 22,852 persons in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2003–2008) were examined by specific food source and by food location of origin. Analyses were based on a single 24-h recall. Separate analyses were conducted
[...] Read more.
Sodium intakes, from foods and beverages, of 22,852 persons in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2003–2008) were examined by specific food source and by food location of origin. Analyses were based on a single 24-h recall. Separate analyses were conducted for children (6–11 years of age), adolescents (12–19), and adults (20–50 and ≥51 years). Grouping of like foods (e.g., food sources) used a scheme proposed by the National Cancer Institute, which divides foods/beverages into 96 food subgroups (e.g., pizza, yeast breads or cold cuts). Food locations of origin were stores (e.g., grocery, convenience and specialty stores), quick-service restaurant/pizza (QSR), full-service restaurant (FSR), school, or other. Food locations of sodium were also evaluated by race/ethnicity amongst adults. Stores provided between 58.1% and 65.2% of dietary sodium, whereas QSR and FSR together provided between 18.9% and 31.8% depending on age. The proportion of sodium from QSR varied from 10.1% to 19.9%, whereas that from FSR varied from 3.4% to 13.3%. School meals provided 10.4% of sodium for 6–11 year olds and 6.0% for 12–19 year olds. Pizza from QSR, the top away from home food item, provided 5.4% of sodium in adolescents. QSR pizza, chicken, burgers and Mexican dishes combined provided 7.8% of total sodium in adult diets. Most sodium came from foods purchased in stores. Food manufacturers, restaurants, and grocery stores all have a role to play in reducing the amount of sodium in the American diet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Minerals)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Long-Term Oral Administration of Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid on the Immune Functions of Young Rats
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 1949-1961; doi:10.3390/nu5061949
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 20 May 2013 / Published: 29 May 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Natural killer (NK) cells have many functional activities, including cytotoxicity and the capacity to produce cytokines and chemokines. NK cell activity is regulated partly by eicosanoids, which are produced from arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acid. In this study, we investigated the
[...] Read more.
Natural killer (NK) cells have many functional activities, including cytotoxicity and the capacity to produce cytokines and chemokines. NK cell activity is regulated partly by eicosanoids, which are produced from arachidonic acid (ARA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of long-term therapy with ARA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the cytotoxic effects of the NK cells of young rats, which were fed on a nonfish oil diet for two generations. Control oil, ARA (240 mg/kg BW/day) or DHA (240 mg/kg BW/day) were orally administrated to the rats for 13 weeks before determining the cytotoxic activity of NK cells from the spleen against YAC-1 mouse lymphoma cell line, as well as the plasma levels of docosanoids or eicosanoids and inflammatory cytokines. Long-term ARA administration significantly suppressed the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. Moreover, ARA administration significantly increased the plasma levels of ARA, prostaglandin (PG) E2, and PGD2. However, DHA administration did not produce any different effects compared with those in the control rats. Furthermore, the inflammatory cytokine levels were not affected by the administration of ARA or DHA. These results suggest that long-term ARA administration has an inhibitory effect on the tumor cytotoxicity of NK cells in rat spleen lymphocytes owing to the enhanced synthesis of PGE2 and PGD2 from ARA because of the elevated plasma ARA levels in young rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
Open AccessArticle Macular Pigment and Its Contribution to Vision
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 1962-1969; doi:10.3390/nu5061962
Received: 26 March 2013 / Revised: 26 April 2013 / Accepted: 15 May 2013 / Published: 29 May 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (274 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three dietary carotenoids, lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) accumulate at the central retina (macula), where they are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP). MP’s pre-receptoral absorption of blue light and consequential attenuation of the effects of chromatic aberration and light
[...] Read more.
Three dietary carotenoids, lutein (L), zeaxanthin (Z) and meso-zeaxanthin (MZ) accumulate at the central retina (macula), where they are collectively referred to as macular pigment (MP). MP’s pre-receptoral absorption of blue light and consequential attenuation of the effects of chromatic aberration and light scatter are important for optimal visual function. Furthermore, antioxidant activity of MP’s constituent carotenoids and the same blue light-filtering properties underlie the rationale for its putative protective role for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Supplementation with L, Z and MZ augments MP and enhances visual performance in diseased and non-diseased eyes, and may reduce risk of AMD development and/or progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Developing and Implementing All-in-One Standard Paediatric Parenteral Nutrition
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2006-2018; doi:10.3390/nu5062006
Received: 10 January 2013 / Revised: 7 February 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 5 June 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (317 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a feeding mode suitable for children that do not achieve requirements via the enteral route. For this intervention to be successful, healthcare professionals require: knowledge on nutrient requirements; access to an aseptic compounding facility; and a system that ensures
[...] Read more.
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a feeding mode suitable for children that do not achieve requirements via the enteral route. For this intervention to be successful, healthcare professionals require: knowledge on nutrient requirements; access to an aseptic compounding facility; and a system that ensures adequate and safe delivery of PN. Previously, it was thought that individualised PN was the “gold standard” for delivering nutrients to children; however, studies have highlighted concerns regarding inadequate delivery of nutrients, prescribing and compounding errors. We, therefore, set out to develop and implement all-in-one (AIO) paediatric PN solutions. Through a systematic approach, four AIO PN solutions were developed: birth–two months of age (Ped 1); two months–10 kg (Ped 2); 11–15 kg (Ped 3); and 16–30 kg (Ped 4). We implemented them with the help of a teaching pack, over a one month time period, and reviewed usage at six months. At that time, five children initially received standard PN without electrolyte changes; but after a few days, electrolytes needed amendments, and three required individualised PN. A change to AIO PN is feasible and safe; however, some may require electrolyte changes, and there will always be those that will require individualised PN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenteral Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle The Effects of Caffeinated “Energy Shots” on Time Trial Performance
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2062-2075; doi:10.3390/nu5062062
Received: 26 March 2013 / Revised: 22 May 2013 / Accepted: 27 May 2013 / Published: 6 June 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An emerging trend in sports nutrition is the consumption of energy drinks and “energy shots”. Energy shots may prove to be a viable pre-competition supplement for runners. Six male runners (mean ± SD age and VO2max: 22.5 ± 1.8 years and
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An emerging trend in sports nutrition is the consumption of energy drinks and “energy shots”. Energy shots may prove to be a viable pre-competition supplement for runners. Six male runners (mean ± SD age and VO2max: 22.5 ± 1.8 years and 69.1 ± 5.7 mL·kg−1·min−1) completed three trials [placebo (PLA; 0 mg caffeine), Guayakí Yerba Maté Organic Energy Shot™ (YM; 140 mg caffeine), or Red Bull Energy Shot™ (RB; 80 mg caffeine)]. Treatments were ingested following a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design. Participants ran a five kilometer time trial on a treadmill. No differences (p > 0.05) in performance were detected with RB (17.55 ± 1.01 min) or YM ingestion (17.86 ± 1.59 min) compared to placebo (17.44 ± 1.25 min). Overall, energy shot ingestion did not improve time-trial running performance in trained runners. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Vitamin D3 and Paricalcitol on Immature Cardiomyocytes: A Novel Role for Vitamin D Analogs in the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2076-2092; doi:10.3390/nu5062076
Received: 15 April 2013 / Revised: 23 May 2013 / Accepted: 24 May 2013 / Published: 7 June 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease than in the general population and they are considered the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery that vitamin D3 plays a considerable role in cardiovascular
[...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases are more prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease than in the general population and they are considered the leading cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery that vitamin D3 plays a considerable role in cardiovascular protection has led, in recent years, to an increase in the administration of therapies based on the use of this molecule; nevertheless, several studies warned that an excess of vitamin D3 may increase the risk of hypercalcemia and vascular calcifications. In this study we evaluated the effects of vitamin D3, and of its selective analog paricalcitol, on immature cardiomyocytes. Results show that vitamin D3 induces cAMP-mediated cell proliferation and significant intracellular calcification. Paricalcitol, however, induces cell differentiation, morphological modifications in cell shape and size, and no intracellular calcification. Furthermore, vitamin D3 and paricalcitol differently affect cardiomyoblasts responses to acetylcholine treatment. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the effects of vitamin D3 and paricalcitol on cardiomyoblasts are different and, if these in vitro observations could be extrapolated in vivo, they suggest that paricalcitol has the potential for cardiovascular protection without the risk of inducing intracellular calcification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle The Role of Viscosity and Fermentability of Dietary Fibers on Satiety- and Adiposity-Related Hormones in Rats
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2093-2113; doi:10.3390/nu5062093
Received: 2 April 2013 / Revised: 28 May 2013 / Accepted: 29 May 2013 / Published: 7 June 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dietary fiber may contribute to satiety. This study examined the effect of two dietary fiber characteristics, small intestinal contents viscosity and large intestinal fermentability, on satiety-and adiposity-related hormones in rats. Diets contained fiber sources that were non-viscous, somewhat viscous, or highly viscous, and
[...] Read more.
Dietary fiber may contribute to satiety. This study examined the effect of two dietary fiber characteristics, small intestinal contents viscosity and large intestinal fermentability, on satiety-and adiposity-related hormones in rats. Diets contained fiber sources that were non-viscous, somewhat viscous, or highly viscous, and either highly fermentable or non-fermentable, in a 2 × 3 factorial design. In the fed state (2 h postprandial), rats fed non-fermentable fibers had significantly greater plasma GLP-1 concentration than fermentable fibers. In the fasted state, among non-fermentable fibers, viscosity had no effect on GLP-1 concentration. However, among fermentable fibers, greater viscosity reduced GLP-1 concentration. Plasma peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) concentrations in the fasted state were not influenced by the fermentability of the fiber overall, however animals consuming a fructooligosaccharide greater PYY concentration. In both the fed and fasted states, rats fed non-fermentable fibers had a significantly lower plasma ghrelin concentration than rats fed fermentable fibers. In the fasted state, rats fed non-fermentable fibers had a significantly lower plasma leptin concentration than rats fed fermentable fibers. Thus, fermentability and viscosity of dietary fiber interacted in complex ways to influence satiety- and adiposity-related plasma hormone concentrations. However, the results suggest that highly viscous, non-fermentable fibers may limit weight gain and reduce adiposity and non-fermentable fibers, regardless of viscosity, may promote meal termination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Levels Are Associated with Cardiac Autonomic Activity in Healthy Humans
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2114-2127; doi:10.3390/nu5062114
Received: 11 April 2013 / Revised: 29 May 2013 / Accepted: 3 June 2013 / Published: 10 June 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D deficiency (≤50nmol/L 25-hydroxy vitamin D) is a cardiovascular (CV) risk factor that affects approximately one billion people worldwide, particularly those affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Individuals with CKD demonstrate abnormal cardiac autonomic nervous system activity, which has been linked to
[...] Read more.
Vitamin D deficiency (≤50nmol/L 25-hydroxy vitamin D) is a cardiovascular (CV) risk factor that affects approximately one billion people worldwide, particularly those affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Individuals with CKD demonstrate abnormal cardiac autonomic nervous system activity, which has been linked to the significant rates of CV-related mortality in this population. Whether vitamin D deficiency has a direct association with regulation of cardiac autonomic activity has never been explored in humans. Methods: Thirty-four (34) healthy, normotensive subjects were studied and categorized based on 25-hydroxy vitamin D deficiency (deficient vs. non-deficient, n = 7 vs. 27), as well as 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels (above vs. below 25th percentile, n = 8 vs. 26). Power spectral analysis of electrocardiogram recordings provided measures of cardiac autonomic activity across low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF, representative of vagal contribution) bands, representative of the sympathetic and vagal limbs of the autonomic nervous system when transformed to normalized units (nu), respectively, as well as overall cardiosympathovagal balance (LF:HF) during graded angiotensin II (AngII) challenge (3 ng/kg/min × 30 min, 6 ng/kg/min × 30 min). Results: At baseline, significant suppression of sympathovagal balance was observed in the 25-hydroxy vitamin D-deficient participants (LF:HF, p = 0.02 vs. non-deficient), although no other differences were observed throughout AngII challenge. Participants in the lowest 1,25-dihydroxy VD quartile experienced significant withdrawal of inhibitory vagal control, as well as altered overall sympathovagal balance throughout AngII challenge (HF, mean difference = −6.98 ± 3 nu, p = 0.05; LF:HF, mean difference = 0.34 ± 0.1, p = 0.043 vs. above 25th percentile). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with suppression of resting cardiac autonomic activity, while low 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D levels are associated with unfavourable cardiac autonomic activity during an acute AngII stressor, offering a potential pathophysiological mechanism that may be acting to elevate CV risk in in populations with low vitamin D status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Impact of Short Term Consumption of Diets High in Either Non-Starch Polysaccharides or Resistant Starch in Comparison with Moderate Weight Loss on Indices of Insulin Sensitivity in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2144-2172; doi:10.3390/nu5062144
Received: 6 March 2013 / Revised: 6 May 2013 / Accepted: 28 May 2013 / Published: 10 June 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (549 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study investigated if additional non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) or resistant starch (RS), above that currently recommended, leads to better improvement in insulin sensitivity (IS) than observed with modest weight loss (WL). Obese male volunteers (n = 14) were given an energy-maintenance (M)
[...] Read more.
This study investigated if additional non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) or resistant starch (RS), above that currently recommended, leads to better improvement in insulin sensitivity (IS) than observed with modest weight loss (WL). Obese male volunteers (n = 14) were given an energy-maintenance (M) diet containing 27 g NSP and 5 g RS daily for one week. They then received, in a cross-over design, energy-maintenance intakes of either an NSP-enriched diet (42 g NSP, 2.5 g RS) or an RS-enriched diet (16 g NSP, 25 g RS), each for three weeks. Finally, a high protein (30% calories) WL diet was provided at 8 MJ/day for three weeks. During each dietary intervention, endogenous glucose production (EGP) and IS were assessed. Fasting glycaemia was unaltered by diet, but plasma insulin and C-peptide both decreased with the WL diet (p < 0.001), as did EGP (−11%, p = 0.006). Homeostatis model assessment of insulin resistance improved following both WL (p < 0.001) and RS (p < 0.05) diets. Peripheral tissue IS improved only with WL (57%–83%, p < 0.005). Inclusion of additional RS or NSP above amounts currently recommended resulted in little or no improvement in glycaemic control, whereas moderate WL (approximately 3 kg fat) improved IS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Serum Ionized Calcium May Be Related to White Matter Lesion Volumes in Older Adults: A Pilot Study
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2192-2205; doi:10.3390/nu5062192
Received: 12 April 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 6 June 2013 / Published: 18 June 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
White matter lesions have detrimental effects upon older adults, while serum calcium levels have been associated with elevated vascular risk and may be associated with these lesions. Depression, a serious mental disorder characterized by disturbances in calcium metabolism, may be an important contributor
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White matter lesions have detrimental effects upon older adults, while serum calcium levels have been associated with elevated vascular risk and may be associated with these lesions. Depression, a serious mental disorder characterized by disturbances in calcium metabolism, may be an important contributor to any calcium-lesion relationship. This cross-sectional pilot study examined the association between serum ionized calcium (the physiologically active form of calcium) and white matter lesion volumes in a sample of depressed and non-depressed older adults (N = 42; 60 years and older). Serum ionized calcium was determined using an ion-selective electrode technique, while lesion volumes were estimated from magnetic resonance imaging using an automated expectation-maximization segmentation. A linear regression model, controlling for age and group (depression vs. comparison), showed a trend for a positive relationship between serum ionized calcium and white matter lesion volume (β = 4.34, SE = 2.27, t = 1.91, p = 0.063). Subsample analyses with depressed participants showed a significant positive relationship between higher ionic calcium and greater lesion volume (β = 6.41, SE = 2.53, t = 2.53, p = 0.018), but no association was found for non-depressed participants. Sex-specific subsample analyses showed a significant positive relationship between higher calcium and greater lesion volume in men only (β = 7.49, SE = 3.42, t = 2.19, p = 0.041). These preliminary results indicate that serum ionized calcium may be associated with white matter lesions in older adults, particularly among men and individuals with depression. Larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Needs of Older Adults)
Open AccessArticle Iron in Child Obesity. Relationships with Inflammation and Metabolic Risk Factors
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2222-2230; doi:10.3390/nu5062222
Received: 21 March 2013 / Revised: 27 May 2013 / Accepted: 2 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (355 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iron (Fe) sequestration is described in overweight and in its associated metabolic complications, i.e., metabolic syndrome (MetS) and non-alcoholic liver fatty disease (NAFLD); however, the interactions between Fe, obesity and inflammation make it difficult to recognize the specific role of each of
[...] Read more.
Iron (Fe) sequestration is described in overweight and in its associated metabolic complications, i.e., metabolic syndrome (MetS) and non-alcoholic liver fatty disease (NAFLD); however, the interactions between Fe, obesity and inflammation make it difficult to recognize the specific role of each of them in the risk of obesity-induced metabolic diseases. Even the usual surrogate marker of Fe stores, ferritin, is influenced by inflammation; therefore, in obese subjects inflammation parameters must be measured together with those of Fe metabolism. This cross-sectional study in obese youth (502 patients; 57% girls): 11.4 ± 3.0 years old (x ± SD); BMI z score 5.5 ± 2.3), multivariate regression analysis showed associations between Fe storage assessed by serum ferritin with risk factors for MetS and NAFLD, assessed by transaminase levels, which were independent of overweight and the acute phase protein fibrinogen. Further studies incorporating the measurement of complementary parameters of Fe metabolism could improve the comprehension of mechanisms involved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Iron and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2258-2267; doi:10.3390/nu5062258
Received: 15 April 2013 / Revised: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 June 2013 / Published: 21 June 2013
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (347 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation
[...] Read more.
Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chocolate and Cocoa in Human Health)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Vitamin D and the Athlete: Risks, Recommendations, and Benefits
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 1856-1868; doi:10.3390/nu5061856
Received: 2 April 2013 / Revised: 7 May 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 28 May 2013
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (365 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D is well known for its role in calcium regulation and bone health, but emerging literature tells of vitamin D’s central role in other vital body processes, such as: signaling gene response, protein synthesis, hormone synthesis, immune response, plus, cell turnover and
[...] Read more.
Vitamin D is well known for its role in calcium regulation and bone health, but emerging literature tells of vitamin D’s central role in other vital body processes, such as: signaling gene response, protein synthesis, hormone synthesis, immune response, plus, cell turnover and regeneration. The discovery of the vitamin D receptor within the muscle suggested a significant role for vitamin D in muscle tissue function. This discovery led researchers to question the impact that vitamin D deficiency could have on athletic performance and injury. With over 77% of the general population considered vitamin D insufficient, it’s likely that many athletes fall into the same category. Research has suggested vitamin D to have a significant effect on muscle weakness, pain, balance, and fractures in the aging population; still, the athletic population is yet to be fully examined. There are few studies to date that have examined the relationship between vitamin D status and performance, therefore, this review will focus on the bodily roles of vitamin D, recommended 25(OH)D levels, vitamin D intake guidelines and risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency in athletes. In addition, the preliminary findings regarding vitamin D’s impact on athletic performance will be examined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Probiotics, Prebiotics and Immunomodulation of Gut Mucosal Defences: Homeostasis and Immunopathology
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 1869-1912; doi:10.3390/nu5061869
Received: 5 March 2013 / Revised: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 9 May 2013 / Published: 29 May 2013
Cited by 62 | PDF Full-text (494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Probiotics are beneficial microbes that confer a realistic health benefit on the host, which in combination with prebiotics, (indigestible dietary fibre/carbohydrate), also confer a health benefit on the host via products resulting from anaerobic fermentation. There is a growing body of evidence documenting
[...] Read more.
Probiotics are beneficial microbes that confer a realistic health benefit on the host, which in combination with prebiotics, (indigestible dietary fibre/carbohydrate), also confer a health benefit on the host via products resulting from anaerobic fermentation. There is a growing body of evidence documenting the immune-modulatory ability of probiotic bacteria, it is therefore reasonable to suggest that this is potentiated via a combination of prebiotics and probiotics as a symbiotic mix. The need for probiotic formulations has been appreciated for the health benefits in “topping up your good bacteria” or indeed in an attempt to normalise the dysbiotic microbiota associated with immunopathology. This review will focus on the immunomodulatory role of probiotics and prebiotics on the cells, molecules and immune responses in the gut mucosae, from epithelial barrier to priming of adaptive responses by antigen presenting cells: immune fate decision—tolerance or activation? Modulation of normal homeostatic mechanisms, coupled with findings from probiotic and prebiotic delivery in pathological studies, will highlight the role for these xenobiotics in dysbiosis associated with immunopathology in the context of inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and hypersensitivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
Open AccessReview Calcium Regulation and Bone Mineral Metabolism in Elderly Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 1913-1936; doi:10.3390/nu5061913
Received: 18 February 2013 / Revised: 25 April 2013 / Accepted: 8 May 2013 / Published: 29 May 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (814 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The elderly chronic kidney disease (CKD) population is growing. Both aging and CKD can disrupt calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis and cause alterations of multiple Ca2+-regulatory mechanisms, including parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23/Klotho, calcium-sensing receptor and Ca2+-phosphate
[...] Read more.
The elderly chronic kidney disease (CKD) population is growing. Both aging and CKD can disrupt calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis and cause alterations of multiple Ca2+-regulatory mechanisms, including parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor-23/Klotho, calcium-sensing receptor and Ca2+-phosphate product. These alterations can be deleterious to bone mineral metabolism and soft tissue health, leading to metabolic bone disease and vascular calcification and aging, termed CKD-mineral and bone disorder (MBD). CKD-MBD is associated with morbid clinical outcomes, including fracture, cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. In this paper, we comprehensively review Ca2+ regulation and bone mineral metabolism, with a special emphasis on elderly CKD patients. We also present the current treatment-guidelines and management options for CKD-MBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Needs of Older Adults)
Open AccessReview The Relationship between Selenoprotein P and Glucose Metabolism in Experimental Studies
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 1937-1948; doi:10.3390/nu5061937
Received: 26 February 2013 / Revised: 30 April 2013 / Accepted: 6 May 2013 / Published: 29 May 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Selenium is an essential trace element in the diet of mammals which is important for many physiological functions. However, a number of epidemiological studies have suggested that high selenium status is a possible risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, although
[...] Read more.
Selenium is an essential trace element in the diet of mammals which is important for many physiological functions. However, a number of epidemiological studies have suggested that high selenium status is a possible risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, although they cannot distinguish between cause and effect. Selenoprotein P (Sepp1) is central to selenium homeostasis and widely expressed in the organism. Here we review the interaction between Sepp1 and glucose metabolism with an emphasis on experimental evidence. In models with or without gene modification, glucose and insulin can regulate Sepp1 expression in the pancreas and liver, and vice versa. Especially in the liver, Sepp1 is regulated virtually like a gluconeogenic enzyme. Combining these data suggests that there could be a feedback regulation between hepatic Sepp1 and pancreatic insulin and that increasing circulating Sepp1 might be the result rather than the cause of abnormal glucose metabolism. Future studies specifically designed to overexpress Sepp1 are needed in order to provide a more robust link between Sepp1 and type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium and Health)
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Open AccessReview Peculiarities of Enhancing Resistant Starch in Ruminants Using Chemical Methods: Opportunities and Challenges
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 1970-1988; doi:10.3390/nu5061970
Received: 1 March 2013 / Revised: 19 April 2013 / Accepted: 22 May 2013 / Published: 4 June 2013
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (676 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-producing ruminants are fed high amounts of cereal grains, at the expense of dietary fiber, to meet their high energy demands. Grains consist mainly of starch, which is easily degraded in the rumen by microbial glycosidases, providing energy for rapid growth of rumen
[...] Read more.
High-producing ruminants are fed high amounts of cereal grains, at the expense of dietary fiber, to meet their high energy demands. Grains consist mainly of starch, which is easily degraded in the rumen by microbial glycosidases, providing energy for rapid growth of rumen microbes and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) as the main energy source for the host. Yet, low dietary fiber contents and the rapid accumulation of SCFA lead to rumen disorders in cattle. The chemical processing of grains has become increasingly important to confer their starch resistances against rumen microbial glycosidases, hence generating ruminally resistant starch (RRS). In ruminants, unlike monogastric species, the strategy of enhancing resistant starch is useful, not only in lowering the amount of carbohydrate substrates available for digestion in the upper gut sections, but also in enhancing the net hepatic glucose supply, which can be utilized by the host more efficiently than the hepatic gluconeogenesis of SCFA. The use of chemical methods to enhance the RRS of grains and the feeding of RRS face challenges in the practice; therefore, the present article attempts to summarize the most important achievements in the chemical processing methods used to generate RRS, and review advantages and challenges of feeding RRS to ruminants Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Fiber and Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview Body Fat Distribution and Insulin Resistance
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2019-2027; doi:10.3390/nu5062019
Received: 8 April 2013 / Revised: 23 May 2013 / Accepted: 24 May 2013 / Published: 5 June 2013
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (275 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The burden of obesity has increased globally over the last few decades and its association with insulin resistance and related cardio-metabolic problems have adversely affected our ability to reduce population morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, adipose tissue in the visceral fat depot has been
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The burden of obesity has increased globally over the last few decades and its association with insulin resistance and related cardio-metabolic problems have adversely affected our ability to reduce population morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, adipose tissue in the visceral fat depot has been considered a major culprit in the development of insulin resistance. However, there is a growing body of evidence supporting the role of subcutaneous truncal/abdominal adipose tissue in the development of insulin resistance. There are significant differences in the functional characteristics of subcutaneous abdominal/truncal vs. intraabdominal vs. gluteo-femoral fat depots. More recently, mounting evidence has been supporting the role of adipose tissue function in the development of metabolic complications independent of adipose tissue volume or distribution. Decreased capacity for adipocyte differentiation and angiogenesis along with adipocyte hypertrophy can trigger a vicious cycle of inflammation leading to subcutaneous adipose tissue dysfunction and ectopic fat deposition. Therapeutic lifestyle change continues to be the most important intervention in clinical practice to improve adipose tissue function and avoid development of insulin resistance and related cardio-metabolic complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dyslipidemia and Obesity)
Open AccessReview Heated Allergens and Induction of Tolerance in Food Allergic Children
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2028-2046; doi:10.3390/nu5062028
Received: 28 March 2013 / Revised: 15 May 2013 / Accepted: 17 May 2013 / Published: 5 June 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (486 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Food allergies are one of the first manifestations of allergic disease and have been shown to significantly impact on general health perception, parental emotional distress and family activities. It is estimated that in the Western world, almost one in ten children have an
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Food allergies are one of the first manifestations of allergic disease and have been shown to significantly impact on general health perception, parental emotional distress and family activities. It is estimated that in the Western world, almost one in ten children have an IgE-mediated allergy. Cow’s milk and egg allergy are common childhood allergies. Until recently, children with food allergy were advised to avoid all dietary exposure to the allergen to which they were sensitive, in the thought that consumption would exacerbate their allergy. However, recent publications indicate that up to 70% of children with egg allergy can tolerate egg baked in a cake or muffin without apparent reaction. Likewise, up to 75% of children can tolerate baked goods containing cow’s milk, and these children demonstrate IgE and IgG4 profiles indicative of tolerance development. This article will review the current literature regarding the use of heated food allergens as immunotherapy for children with cow’s milk and egg allergy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)
Open AccessReview Does Excess Weight Interfere with Bone Mass Accumulation during Adolescence?
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2047-2061; doi:10.3390/nu5062047
Received: 24 January 2013 / Revised: 16 May 2013 / Accepted: 17 May 2013 / Published: 6 June 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (348 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Obesity and osteoporosis are important global health problems characterized by increasing prevalence with high impact on morbidity and mortality. The objective of this review was to determine whether excess weight during adolescence interferes with bone mass accumulation. If bone mineral gain can be
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Obesity and osteoporosis are important global health problems characterized by increasing prevalence with high impact on morbidity and mortality. The objective of this review was to determine whether excess weight during adolescence interferes with bone mass accumulation. If bone mineral gain can be optimized during puberty, adults are less likely to suffer from the devastating complications of osteoporosis. The increased fracture risk in obese children has also been attributed to a lower bone mass for weight compared to non-obese children. Thus, adiposity present in this age group may not result in the protection of bone mass, in contrast to what has been observed in adults. However, studies involving adolescents have reported both protective and detrimental effects of obesity on bone. The results and mechanisms of these interactions are controversial and have not been fully elucidated, a fact highlighting the extreme relevance of this topic and the need to monitor intervening and interactive variables. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
Open AccessReview Flavonoids and Asthma
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2128-2143; doi:10.3390/nu5062128
Received: 1 April 2013 / Revised: 3 May 2013 / Accepted: 15 May 2013 / Published: 10 June 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Asthma is a chronic disease, characterized by airway inflammation, airflow limitation, hyper-reactivity and airway remodeling. It is believed that asthma is caused by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The prevalence of allergic diseases, including asthma, has increased worldwide during the past
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Asthma is a chronic disease, characterized by airway inflammation, airflow limitation, hyper-reactivity and airway remodeling. It is believed that asthma is caused by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The prevalence of allergic diseases, including asthma, has increased worldwide during the past two decades. Although the precise reasons that have caused this increase remain unknown, dietary change is thought to be one of the environmental factors. Flavonoids, which are polyphenolic plant secondary metabolites ubiquitously present in vegetables, fruits and beverages, possess antioxidant and anti-allergic traits, as well as immune-modulating activities. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and anti-allergic nutrients that inhibit the release of chemical mediators, synthesis of Th2 type cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, and CD40 ligand expression by high-affinity immunoglobulin E (IgE) receptor-expressing cells, such as mast cells and basophils. They also inhibit IL-4-induced signal transduction and affect the differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into effector T-cells through their inhibitory effect on the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Various studies of flavonoids in asthmatic animal models have demonstrated their beneficial effects. The results of several epidemiological studies suggest that an increase in flavonoid intake is beneficial for asthma. Moreover, clinical trials of flavonoids have shown their ameliorative effects on symptoms related to asthma. However, these human studies are currently limited; further validation is required to clarify whether an appropriate intake of flavonoids may constitute dietary treatment and for part of a preventive strategy for asthma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Respiratory Disease)
Open AccessReview Protection of Dietary Polyphenols against Oral Cancer
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2173-2191; doi:10.3390/nu5062173
Received: 1 March 2013 / Revised: 24 April 2013 / Accepted: 28 May 2013 / Published: 14 June 2013
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (417 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide with approximate 275,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Its poor prognosis is due to local tumor invasion and frequent lymph node metastasis. Better understanding and development of novel treatments and chemo-preventive approaches for the preventive and therapeutic
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Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide with approximate 275,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Its poor prognosis is due to local tumor invasion and frequent lymph node metastasis. Better understanding and development of novel treatments and chemo-preventive approaches for the preventive and therapeutic intervention of this type of cancer are necessary. Recent development of dietary polyphenols as cancer preventives and therapeutic agents is of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. Polyphenols may inhibit carcinogenesis in the stage of initiation, promotion, or progression. In particular, dietary polyphenols decrease incidence of carcinomas and exert protection against oral cancer by induction of cell death and inhibition of tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this review, we discuss current progress of dietary polyphenols against oral cancers in vitro, in vivo, and at population levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Human Health)
Open AccessReview The Role of Vitamin D in Hematologic Disease and Stem Cell Transplantation
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2206-2221; doi:10.3390/nu5062206
Received: 9 May 2013 / Revised: 3 June 2013 / Accepted: 8 June 2013 / Published: 18 June 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (332 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D is a steroid hormone with a broad range of biological effects ranging from the classical role as a mediator of calcium and phosphate balance to cellular differentiation and immune modulation. These effects impact normal and dysfunctional hematopoietic and immune function, which
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Vitamin D is a steroid hormone with a broad range of biological effects ranging from the classical role as a mediator of calcium and phosphate balance to cellular differentiation and immune modulation. These effects impact normal and dysfunctional hematopoietic and immune function, which may allow an avenue for improved treatment and support of patients suffering from hematologic disorders. In this review, we will summarize the role of vitamin D in normal hematopoiesis, discuss ways in which vitamin D may improve outcomes, and discuss a potential role of vitamin D for treating hematologic disorders and modulating the immune system to improve the outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview The Role of Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Complexes Signaling in the Immune Responses
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 2231-2257; doi:10.3390/nu5062231
Received: 15 April 2013 / Revised: 5 June 2013 / Accepted: 5 June 2013 / Published: 19 June 2013
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (928 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase which is a member of the PI3K related kinase (PIKK) family. mTOR emerged as a central node in cellular metabolism, cell growth, and differentiation, as well as cancer metabolism. mTOR senses
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The mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase which is a member of the PI3K related kinase (PIKK) family. mTOR emerged as a central node in cellular metabolism, cell growth, and differentiation, as well as cancer metabolism. mTOR senses the nutrients, energy, insulin, growth factors, and environmental cues and transmits signals to downstream targets to effectuate the cellular and metabolic response. Recently, mTOR was also implicated in the regulation of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. This paper will summarize the current knowledge of mTOR, as related to the immune microenvironment and immune responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrients and Immune Function)

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Open AccessCase Report Observation of Human Retinal Remodeling in Octogenarians with a Resveratrol Based Nutritional Supplement
Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 1989-2005; doi:10.3390/nu5061989
Received: 8 March 2013 / Revised: 10 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 4 June 2013
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (1383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Purpose: Rare spontaneous remissions from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) suggest the human retina has large regenerative capacity, even in advanced age. We present examples of robust improvement of retinal structure and function using an OTC oral resveratrol (RV) based nutritional supplement called
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Purpose: Rare spontaneous remissions from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) suggest the human retina has large regenerative capacity, even in advanced age. We present examples of robust improvement of retinal structure and function using an OTC oral resveratrol (RV) based nutritional supplement called Longevinex® or L/RV (circa 2004, Resveratrol Partners, LLC, Las Vegas, NV, USA). RV, a polyphenolic phytoalexin caloric-restriction mimic, induces hormesis at low doses with widespread beneficial effects on systemic health. RV alone inhibits neovascularization in the murine retina. Thus far, published evidence includes L/RV mitigation of experimentally induced murine cardiovascular reperfusion injury, amelioration of human atherosclerosis serum biomarkers in a human Japanese randomized placebo controlled trial, modulation of micro RNA 20b and 539 that control hypoxia-inducing-factor (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) genes in the murine heart (RV inhibited micro RNA20b 189-fold, L/RV 1366-fold). Little is known about the effects of L/RV on human ocular pathology. Methods: Absent FDA IRB approval, but with permission from our Chief of Staff and medical center IRB, L/RV is reserved for AMD patients, on a case-by-case compassionate care basis. Patients include those who progress on AREDS II type supplements, refuse intra-vitreal anti-VEGF injections or fail to respond to Lucentis®, Avastin® or Eylea®. Patients are clinically followed traditionally as well as with multi-spectral retinal imaging, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, cone glare recovery and macular visual fields. Three cases are presented. Results: Observed dramatic short-term anti-VEGF type effect including anatomic restoration of retinal structure with a suggestion of improvement in choroidal blood flow by near IR multispectral imaging. The visual function improvement mirrors the effect seen anatomically. The effect is bilateral with the added benefit of better RPE function. Effects have lasted for one year or longer when taken daily, at which point one patient required initiation of anti-VEGF agents. Unanticipated systemic benefits were observed. Conclusions: Preliminary observations support previous publications in animals and humans. Restoration of structure and visual function in octogenarians with daily oral consumption of L/RV is documented. Applications include failure on AREDS II supplements, refusing or failing conventional anti-VEGF therapy, adjunct therapy to improve RPE function, and compassionate use in medically underserved or economically depressed third-world countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and the Eye) Print Edition available

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