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Sodium Intakes of US Children and Adults from Foods and Beverages by Location of Origin and by Specific Food Source
Université Pierre et Marie Curie—Paris VI, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, 91 boulevard de l'Hôpital, Paris 75013, France
Center for Public Health Nutrition, University of Washington, Box 353410, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2013; in revised form: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 28 May 2013
Abstract: Sodium intakes, from foods and beverages, of 22,852 persons in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2003–2008) were examined by specific food source and by food location of origin. Analyses were based on a single 24-h recall. Separate analyses were conducted for children (6–11 years of age), adolescents (12–19), and adults (20–50 and ≥51 years). Grouping of like foods (e.g., food sources) used a scheme proposed by the National Cancer Institute, which divides foods/beverages into 96 food subgroups (e.g., pizza, yeast breads or cold cuts). Food locations of origin were stores (e.g., grocery, convenience and specialty stores), quick-service restaurant/pizza (QSR), full-service restaurant (FSR), school, or other. Food locations of sodium were also evaluated by race/ethnicity amongst adults. Stores provided between 58.1% and 65.2% of dietary sodium, whereas QSR and FSR together provided between 18.9% and 31.8% depending on age. The proportion of sodium from QSR varied from 10.1% to 19.9%, whereas that from FSR varied from 3.4% to 13.3%. School meals provided 10.4% of sodium for 6–11 year olds and 6.0% for 12–19 year olds. Pizza from QSR, the top away from home food item, provided 5.4% of sodium in adolescents. QSR pizza, chicken, burgers and Mexican dishes combined provided 7.8% of total sodium in adult diets. Most sodium came from foods purchased in stores. Food manufacturers, restaurants, and grocery stores all have a role to play in reducing the amount of sodium in the American diet.
Keywords: dietary sodium; food away from home; fast foods; food source; dietary surveillance; nutrition surveys
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MDPI and ACS Style
Drewnowski, A.; Rehm, C.D. Sodium Intakes of US Children and Adults from Foods and Beverages by Location of Origin and by Specific Food Source. Nutrients 2013, 5, 1840-1855.
Drewnowski A, Rehm CD. Sodium Intakes of US Children and Adults from Foods and Beverages by Location of Origin and by Specific Food Source. Nutrients. 2013; 5(6):1840-1855.
Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D. 2013. "Sodium Intakes of US Children and Adults from Foods and Beverages by Location of Origin and by Specific Food Source." Nutrients 5, no. 6: 1840-1855.