Nutrients 2013, 5(6), 1840-1855; doi:10.3390/nu5061840
Article

Sodium Intakes of US Children and Adults from Foods and Beverages by Location of Origin and by Specific Food Source

1,2,* email and 2email
Received: 5 March 2013; in revised form: 8 May 2013 / Accepted: 13 May 2013 / Published: 28 May 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Minerals)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Sodium intakes, from foods and beverages, of 22,852 persons in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2003–2008) were examined by specific food source and by food location of origin. Analyses were based on a single 24-h recall. Separate analyses were conducted for children (6–11 years of age), adolescents (12–19), and adults (20–50 and ≥51 years). Grouping of like foods (e.g., food sources) used a scheme proposed by the National Cancer Institute, which divides foods/beverages into 96 food subgroups (e.g., pizza, yeast breads or cold cuts). Food locations of origin were stores (e.g., grocery, convenience and specialty stores), quick-service restaurant/pizza (QSR), full-service restaurant (FSR), school, or other. Food locations of sodium were also evaluated by race/ethnicity amongst adults. Stores provided between 58.1% and 65.2% of dietary sodium, whereas QSR and FSR together provided between 18.9% and 31.8% depending on age. The proportion of sodium from QSR varied from 10.1% to 19.9%, whereas that from FSR varied from 3.4% to 13.3%. School meals provided 10.4% of sodium for 6–11 year olds and 6.0% for 12–19 year olds. Pizza from QSR, the top away from home food item, provided 5.4% of sodium in adolescents. QSR pizza, chicken, burgers and Mexican dishes combined provided 7.8% of total sodium in adult diets. Most sodium came from foods purchased in stores. Food manufacturers, restaurants, and grocery stores all have a role to play in reducing the amount of sodium in the American diet.
Keywords: dietary sodium; food away from home; fast foods; food source; dietary surveillance; nutrition surveys
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MDPI and ACS Style

Drewnowski, A.; Rehm, C.D. Sodium Intakes of US Children and Adults from Foods and Beverages by Location of Origin and by Specific Food Source. Nutrients 2013, 5, 1840-1855.

AMA Style

Drewnowski A, Rehm CD. Sodium Intakes of US Children and Adults from Foods and Beverages by Location of Origin and by Specific Food Source. Nutrients. 2013; 5(6):1840-1855.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D. 2013. "Sodium Intakes of US Children and Adults from Foods and Beverages by Location of Origin and by Specific Food Source." Nutrients 5, no. 6: 1840-1855.

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