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Bone Mass and Mineral Metabolism Alterations in Adult Celiac Disease: Pathophysiology and Clinical Approach
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pavia, IRCCS "S.Matteo" Hospital Foundation, Pavia 27100, Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 September 2013; in revised form: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 22 November 2013
Abstract: Osteoporosis affects many patients with celiac disease (CD), representing the consequence of calcium malabsorption and persistent activation of mucosal inflammation. A slight increase of fracture risk is evident in this condition, particularly in those with overt malabsorption and in postmenopausal state. The adoption of a correct gluten-free diet (GFD) improves bone derangement, but is not able to normalize bone mass in all the patients. Biomarkers effective in the prediction of bone response to gluten-free diet are not yet available and the indications of guidelines are still imperfect and debated. In this review, the pathophysiology of bone loss is correlated to clinical aspects, defining an alternative proposal of management for this condition.
Keywords: celiac disease; osteoporosis; gluten-free diet; bone densitometry
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MDPI and ACS Style
Di Stefano, M.; Mengoli, C.; Bergonzi, M.; Corazza, G.R. Bone Mass and Mineral Metabolism Alterations in Adult Celiac Disease: Pathophysiology and Clinical Approach. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4786-4799.
Di Stefano M, Mengoli C, Bergonzi M, Corazza GR. Bone Mass and Mineral Metabolism Alterations in Adult Celiac Disease: Pathophysiology and Clinical Approach. Nutrients. 2013; 5(11):4786-4799.
Di Stefano, Michele; Mengoli, Caterina; Bergonzi, Manuela; Corazza, Gino R. 2013. "Bone Mass and Mineral Metabolism Alterations in Adult Celiac Disease: Pathophysiology and Clinical Approach." Nutrients 5, no. 11: 4786-4799.