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Nutrients, Volume 4, Issue 11 (November 2012), Pages 1542-1793

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessCommunication Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Cognition among Older People with Mild Cognitive Impairment
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1542-1551; doi:10.3390/nu4111542
Received: 21 August 2012 / Revised: 19 October 2012 / Accepted: 19 October 2012 / Published: 25 October 2012
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (380 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There has been increasing interest in the influence of diet on cognition in the elderly. This study examined the cross-sectional association between dietary patterns and cognition in a sample of 249 people aged 65–90 years with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Two dietary patterns;
[...] Read more.
There has been increasing interest in the influence of diet on cognition in the elderly. This study examined the cross-sectional association between dietary patterns and cognition in a sample of 249 people aged 65–90 years with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Two dietary patterns; whole and processed food; were identified using factor analysis from a 107-item; self-completed Food Frequency Questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses showed that participants in the highest tertile of the processed food pattern score were more likely to have poorer cognitive functioning; in the lowest tertile of executive function (OR 2.55; 95% CI: 1.08–6.03); as assessed by the Cambridge Cognitive Examination. In a group of older people with MCI; a diet high in processed foods was associated with some level of cognitive impairment. Full article
Open AccessArticle Aluminum Exposure in Neonatal Patients Using the Least Contaminated Parenteral Nutrition Solution Products
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1566-1574; doi:10.3390/nu4111566
Received: 17 September 2012 / Revised: 16 October 2012 / Accepted: 23 October 2012 / Published: 2 November 2012
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (432 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aluminum (Al) is a contaminant in all parenteral nutrition (PN) solution component products. Manufacturers currently label these products with the maximum Al content at the time of expiry. We recently published data to establish the actual measured concentration of Al in PN solution
[...] Read more.
Aluminum (Al) is a contaminant in all parenteral nutrition (PN) solution component products. Manufacturers currently label these products with the maximum Al content at the time of expiry. We recently published data to establish the actual measured concentration of Al in PN solution products prior to being compounded in the clinical setting [1]. The investigation assessed quantitative Al content of all available products used in the formulation of PN solutions. The objective of this study was to assess the Al exposure in neonatal patients using the least contaminated PN solutions and determine if it is possible to meet the FDA “safe limit” of less than 5 μg/kg/day of Al. The measured concentrations from our previous study were analyzed and the least contaminated products were identified. These concentrations were entered into our PN software and the least possible Al exposure was determined. A significant decrease (41%–44%) in the Al exposure in neonatal patients can be achieved using the least contaminated products, but the FDA “safe limit” of less than 5 μg/kg/day of Al was not met. However, minimizing the Al exposure may decrease the likelihood of developing Al toxicity from PN. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Parenteral Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Prostatic Response to Supranutritional Selenium Supplementation: Comparison of the Target Tissue Potency of Selenomethionine vs. Selenium-Yeast on Markers of Prostatic Homeostasis
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1650-1663; doi:10.3390/nu4111650
Received: 13 September 2012 / Revised: 26 October 2012 / Accepted: 26 October 2012 / Published: 6 November 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (645 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Prostate cancer is the product of dysregulated homeostasis within the aging prostate. Supplementation with selenium in the form of selenized yeast (Se-yeast) significantly reduced prostate cancer incidence in the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. Conversely, the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial
[...] Read more.
Prostate cancer is the product of dysregulated homeostasis within the aging prostate. Supplementation with selenium in the form of selenized yeast (Se-yeast) significantly reduced prostate cancer incidence in the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial. Conversely, the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) showed no such cancer-protective advantage using selenomethionine (SeMet). The possibility that SeMet and Se-yeast are not equipotent in promoting homeostasis and cancer risk reduction in the aging prostate has not been adequately investigated; no direct comparison has ever been reported in man or animals. Here, we analyzed data on prostatic responses to SeMet or Se-yeast from a controlled feeding trial of 49 elderly beagle dogs—the only non-human species to frequently develop prostate cancer during aging—randomized to one of five groups: control; low-dose SeMet, low-dose Se-yeast (3 μg/kg); high-dose SeMet, high-dose Se-yeast (6 μg/kg). After seven months of supplementation, we found no significant selenium form-dependent differences in toenail or intraprostatic selenium concentration. Next, we determined whether SeMet or Se-yeast acts with different potency on six markers of prostatic homeostasis that likely contribute to prostate cancer risk reduction—intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT), testosterone (T), DHT:T, and epithelial cell DNA damage, proliferation, and apoptosis. By analyzing dogs supplemented with SeMet or Se-yeast that achieved equivalent intraprostatic selenium concentration after supplementation, we showed no significant differences in potency of either selenium form on any of the six parameters over three different ranges of target tissue selenium concentration. Our findings, which represent the first direct comparison of SeMet and Se-yeast on a suite of readouts in the aging prostate that reflect flux through multiple gene networks, do not further support the notion that the null results of SELECT are attributable to differences in prostatic consequences achievable through daily supplementation with SeMet, rather than Se-yeast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium and Health)
Open AccessArticle Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Is the Most Effective Cancer Chemopreventive Polyphenol in Green Tea
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1679-1691; doi:10.3390/nu4111679
Received: 10 October 2012 / Revised: 23 October 2012 / Accepted: 5 November 2012 / Published: 8 November 2012
Cited by 70 | PDF Full-text (875 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Green tea is a popular drink consumed daily by millions of people around the world. Previous studies have shown that some polyphenol compounds from green tea possess anticancer activities. However, systemic evaluation was limited. In this study, we determined the cancer chemopreventive potentials
[...] Read more.
Green tea is a popular drink consumed daily by millions of people around the world. Previous studies have shown that some polyphenol compounds from green tea possess anticancer activities. However, systemic evaluation was limited. In this study, we determined the cancer chemopreventive potentials of 10 representative polyphenols (caffeic acid, CA; gallic acid, GA; catechin, C; epicatechin, EC; gallocatechin, GC; catechin gallate, CG; gallocatechin gallate, GCG; epicatechin gallate, ECG; epigallocatechin, EGC; and epigallocatechin gallate, EGCG), and explored their structure-activity relationship. The effect of the 10 polyphenol compounds on the proliferation of HCT-116 and SW-480 human colorectal cancer cells was evaluated using an MTS assay. Cell cycle distribution and apoptotic effects were analyzed by flow cytometry after staining with propidium iodide (PI)/RNase or annexin V/PI. Among the 10 polyphenols, EGCG showed the most potent antiproliferative effects, and significantly induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase and cell apoptosis. When the relationship between chemical structure and anticancer activity was examined, C and EC did not show antiproliferative effects, and GA showed some antiproliferative effects. When C and EC esterified with GA to produce CG and ECG, the antiproliferative effects were increased significantly. A similar relationship was found between EGC and EGCG. The gallic acid group significantly enhanced catechin’s anticancer potential. This property could be utilized in future semi-synthesis of flavonoid derivatives to develop novel anticancer agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Food Group Intake and Micronutrient Adequacy in Adolescent Girls
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1692-1708; doi:10.3390/nu4111692
Received: 27 August 2012 / Revised: 6 October 2012 / Accepted: 22 October 2012 / Published: 12 November 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (644 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years). Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10
[...] Read more.
This study explores the contribution of food group intakes to micronutrient adequacy among 2379 girls in the National Growth and Health Study during three age periods (9–13, 14–18, and 19–20 years). Data on food and nutrient intakes from 3-day diet records over 10 years were used to estimate mean intakes and percent meeting Dietary Guidelines (DGA) recommendations for food intakes and Institute of Medicine’s recommendations for vitamins and minerals. More than 90% of girls failed to consume the recommended amounts of fruit, vegetables and dairy; 75% consumed less than the recommended amounts in the “meat” group. The vast majority of girls of all ages had inadequate intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamins D and E. In contrast, they consumed >750 kcal/day (~40% of total energy) from the DGA category of solid fat and added sugars, about five times the recommended maximum intakes. This study shows the importance of consuming a variety of foods in all five food groups, including those that are more energy dense such as dairy and meats, in order to meet a broad range of nutrient guidelines. Diet patterns that combined intakes across food groups led to greater improvements in overall nutritional adequacy. Full article
Open AccessArticle Post-Meal Responses of Elongation Factor 2 (eEF2) and Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) to Leucine and Carbohydrate Supplements for Regulating Protein Synthesis Duration and Energy Homeostasis in Rat Skeletal Muscle
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1723-1739; doi:10.3390/nu4111723
Received: 6 August 2012 / Revised: 28 October 2012 / Accepted: 30 October 2012 / Published: 13 November 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (666 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous research demonstrates that the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to a meal is regulated at the level of translation initiation with signals derived from leucine (Leu) and insulin to activate mTORC1 signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the duration of the
[...] Read more.
Previous research demonstrates that the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to a meal is regulated at the level of translation initiation with signals derived from leucine (Leu) and insulin to activate mTORC1 signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the duration of the meal response is limited by energy status of the cell and inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2). This study evaluates the potential to extend the anabolic meal response with post-meal supplements of Leu or carbohydrates. Adult (~256 g) male Sprague-Dawley rats were food deprived for 12 h, then either euthanized before a standard meal (time 0) or at 90 or 180 min post-meal. At 135 min post-meal, rats received one of five oral supplements: 270 mg leucine (Leu270), 80:40:40 mg leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu80), 2.63 g carbohydrates (CHO2.6), 1 g carbohydrates (CHO1.0), or water (Sham control). Following the standard meal, MPS increased at 90 min then declined to pre-meal baseline at 180 min. Rats administered Leu270, Leu80, CHO2.6, or CHO1.0 maintained elevated rates of MPS at 180 min, while Sham controls declined from peak values. Leu80 and CHO1.0 treatments maintained MPS, but with values intermediate between Sham controls and Leu270 and CHO2.6 supplements. Consistent with MPS findings, the supplements maintained elongation activity and cellular energy status by preventing increases in AMP/ATP and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC and eEF2. The impact of the supplements on MPS and cellular energy status was in proportion to the energy content within the individual treatments (i.e., Leu270 > Leu80; CHO2.6 > CHO1.0), but the Leu supplements produced a disproportionate anabolic stimulation of MPS, eEF2 and energy status with significantly lower energy content. In summary, the incongruity between MPS and translation initiation at 180 min reflects a block in translation elongation due to reduced cellular energy, and the extent to which Leu or carbohydrate supplements are able to enhance energy status and prolong the period of muscle anabolism are dose and time-dependent. Full article
Open AccessArticle Associations between Maternal Antioxidant Intakes in Pregnancy and Infant Allergic Outcomes
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1747-1758; doi:10.3390/nu4111747
Received: 17 September 2012 / Revised: 7 November 2012 / Accepted: 8 November 2012 / Published: 14 November 2012
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (479 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Antioxidant intakes in pregnancy may influence fetal immune programming and the risk of allergic disease. We investigated associations between maternal intakes of β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, copper and zinc, and infant allergic outcomes. Antioxidant intakes of pregnant women (n = 420)
[...] Read more.
Antioxidant intakes in pregnancy may influence fetal immune programming and the risk of allergic disease. We investigated associations between maternal intakes of β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, copper and zinc, and infant allergic outcomes. Antioxidant intakes of pregnant women (n = 420) assessed prospectively by a food frequency questionnaire, were examined in relation to allergic outcomes at 1 year of age (n = 300). The main relationships with allergic outcomes were seen with dietary vitamin C and copper. Specifically, higher maternal dietary vitamin C intake was associated with a reduced risk of any diagnosed infant allergic disease and wheeze. After adjustment for potential confounders the relationship with wheeze remained statistically significant. There was also an inverse linear relationship between vitamin C and food allergy. Higher dietary copper intake was associated with reduced risk of eczema, wheeze and any allergic disease. The relationship with wheeze and any allergic disease remained statistically significant in multivariate analysis, and there was also an inverse linear relationship between copper and food allergy. However, these relationships were only seen for nutrients present in food. There were no relationships between β-carotene, vitamin E or zinc and any allergic outcomes. In summary, this study suggests that maternal diet of fresh foods rich in vitamin C is associated with reduced risk of infant wheeze, and that copper intake is associated with reduced risk of several allergic outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle Does a Low Glycaemic Index (GI) Diet Cost More during Pregnancy?
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1759-1766; doi:10.3390/nu4111759
Received: 29 August 2012 / Revised: 6 November 2012 / Accepted: 6 November 2012 / Published: 15 November 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (181 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine the monetary cost of dietary change among pregnant women before and after receiving low glycaemic index (GI) dietary advice. The pregnant women in this study were a subgroup of participants in the Pregnancy and Glycaemic
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to examine the monetary cost of dietary change among pregnant women before and after receiving low glycaemic index (GI) dietary advice. The pregnant women in this study were a subgroup of participants in the Pregnancy and Glycaemic Index Outcomes (PREGGIO) study. Twenty women from the low GI dietary advice group, who had completed their pregnancies, were randomly chosen. All these women had completed three day food records at 12–16 weeks and again around 36 weeks of gestation. Consumer food prices were applied to recorded dietary intake data. The mean ± SD GI of the diet reduced from 55.1 ± 4.3 to 51.6 ± 3.9 (p = 0.003). The daily cost of the diet (AUD) was 9.1 ± 2.7 at enrolment and 9.5 ± 2.1 prior to delivery was not significantly different (p = 0.52). There were also no significant differences in the daily energy intake (p = 0.2) or the daily cost per MJ (p = 0.16). Women were able to follow low GI dietary advice during pregnancy with no significant increase in the daily costs. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Diets Supplemented with Branched-Chain Amino Acids on the Performance and Fatigue Mechanisms of Rats Submitted to Prolonged Physical Exercise
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1767-1780; doi:10.3390/nu4111767
Received: 27 August 2012 / Revised: 23 October 2012 / Accepted: 6 November 2012 / Published: 16 November 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (492 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the effects of diets chronically supplemented with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on the fatigue mechanisms of trained rats. Thirty-six adult Wistar rats were trained for six weeks. The training protocol consisted of bouts of swimming exercise (one hour
[...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the effects of diets chronically supplemented with branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on the fatigue mechanisms of trained rats. Thirty-six adult Wistar rats were trained for six weeks. The training protocol consisted of bouts of swimming exercise (one hour a day, five times a week, for six weeks). The animals received a control diet (C) (n = 12), a diet supplemented with 3.57% BCAA (S1) (n = 12), or a diet supplemented with 4.76% BCAA (S2) (n = 12). On the last day of the training protocol, half the animals in each group were sacrificed after one hour of swimming (1H), and the other half after a swimming exhaustion test (EX). Swimming time until exhaustion was increased by 37% in group S1 and reduced by 43% in group S2 compared to group C. Results indicate that the S1 diet had a beneficial effect on performance by sparing glycogen in the soleus muscle (p < 0.05) and by inducing a lower concentration of plasma ammonia, whereas the S2 diet had a negative effect on performance due to hyperammonemia (p < 0.05). The hypothalamic concentration of serotonin was not significantly different between the 1H and EX conditions. In conclusion, chronic BCAA supplementation led to increased performance in rats subjected to a swimming test to exhaustion. However, this is a dose-dependent effect, since chronic ingestion of elevated quantities of BCAA led to a reduction in performance. Full article
Open AccessArticle Benefits of Structured and Free Monoacylglycerols to Deliver Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) in a Model of Lipid Malabsorption
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1781-1793; doi:10.3390/nu4111781
Received: 28 September 2012 / Revised: 29 October 2012 / Accepted: 7 November 2012 / Published: 21 November 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (326 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the present study, we used a preclinical model of induced lipolytic enzyme insufficiency, and hypothesized that the use of monoacylglycerols (MAG) will enhance their bioavailability and delivery to the tissues. Experimental diets containing 20% lipids were fed to rats for 21 days
[...] Read more.
In the present study, we used a preclinical model of induced lipolytic enzyme insufficiency, and hypothesized that the use of monoacylglycerols (MAG) will enhance their bioavailability and delivery to the tissues. Experimental diets containing 20% lipids were fed to rats for 21 days with or without Orlistat. The control diet of fish oil (FO), a source of EPA and DHA, was tested against: structured (A) vanillin acetal of sn-2 MAG (Vanil + O) and (B) diacetyl derivative of sn-2 MAG (Acetyl + O) and (C) free MAG (MAG + O). FA profiles with an emphasis on EPA and DHA levels were determined in plasma, red blood cells (RBC), liver, spleen, brain and retina. We observed significant reduction of lipid absorption when rats co-consumed Orlistat. As expected, the FO groups with and without Orlistat showed the biggest difference. The Vanil + O, Acetyl + O and MAG + O groups, demonstrated higher levels of EPA (5.5 ± 1.9, 4.6 ± 1.6 and 5.6 ± 0.6, respectively) in RBC compared with FO + O diets (3.3 ± 0.2, 2.6 ± 0.2). Levels of EPA incorporation, in plasma, were similar to those obtained for RBC, and similar trends were observed for the collected tissues and even with DHA levels. These observations with two MAG derivatives providing the fatty acid esterified in the sn-2 position, show that these molecules are efficient vehicles of EPA in malabsorption conditions which is in line with our hypothesis. Free MAG, characterized as having exclusively sn-1(3) isomers of EPA, demonstrated better absorption efficiencies and accretion to tissues when compared to structured MAG. The study demonstrated that structured and free MAG can be used efficiently as an enteral vehicle to supply bioactive fatty acids such as EPA and DHA in lipid malabsorption where diminished lipolytic activity is the underlying cause. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Lipids: Sources, Function and Metabolism)

Review

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Open AccessReview Enteral Nutrition Support in Burn Care: A Review of Current Recommendations as Instituted in the Ross Tilley Burn Centre
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1554-1565; doi:10.3390/nu4111554
Received: 6 August 2012 / Revised: 16 October 2012 / Accepted: 22 October 2012 / Published: 29 October 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Failure to adequately address the increased levels of inflammatory mediators, catecholamines and corticosteroids central to the hypermetabolic response post burn injury can lead to catastrophic results. One of the most important perturbations is provision of adequate and early nutrition. The provision of the
[...] Read more.
Failure to adequately address the increased levels of inflammatory mediators, catecholamines and corticosteroids central to the hypermetabolic response post burn injury can lead to catastrophic results. One of the most important perturbations is provision of adequate and early nutrition. The provision of the right balance of macro and micronutrients, along with additional antioxidants is essential to mitigating the hypermetabolic and hypercatabolic state that results following a burn injury. As it is now widely accepted that enteral feeding is best practice for the burn population research has been more closely examining the individual components of enteral nutrition support. Recently fat to carbohydrate ratios, glutamine and antioxidants have made up the balance of this focus. This paper provides a review of the most recent literature examining each of these components and discusses the practices adopted in the Ross Tilley Burn Centre at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteral Nutrition)
Open AccessReview How Feasible Is Baby-Led Weaning as an Approach to Infant Feeding? A Review of the Evidence
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1575-1609; doi:10.3390/nu4111575
Received: 25 August 2012 / Revised: 5 October 2012 / Accepted: 23 October 2012 / Published: 2 November 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (615 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) is an alternative method for introducing complementary foods to infants in which the infant feeds themselves hand-held foods instead of being spoon-fed by an adult. The BLW infant also shares family food and mealtimes and is offered milk (ideally breast
[...] Read more.
Baby-Led Weaning (BLW) is an alternative method for introducing complementary foods to infants in which the infant feeds themselves hand-held foods instead of being spoon-fed by an adult. The BLW infant also shares family food and mealtimes and is offered milk (ideally breast milk) on demand until they self-wean. Anecdotal evidence suggests that many parents are choosing this method instead of conventional spoon-feeding of purées. Observational studies suggest that BLW may encourage improved eating patterns and lead to a healthier body weight, although it is not yet clear whether these associations are causal. This review evaluates the literature with respect to the prerequisites for BLW, which we have defined as beginning complementary foods at six months (for safety reasons), and exclusive breastfeeding to six months (to align with WHO infant feeding guidelines); the gross and oral motor skills required for successful and safe self-feeding of whole foods from six months; and the practicalities of family meals and continued breastfeeding on demand. Baby-Led Weaning will not suit all infants and families, but it is probably achievable for most. However, ultimately, the feasibility of BLW as an approach to infant feeding can only be determined in a randomized controlled trial. Given the popularity of BLW amongst parents, such a study is urgently needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant Nutrition)
Open AccessReview Vitamin D Interactions with Soy Isoflavones on Bone after Menopause: A Review
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1610-1621; doi:10.3390/nu4111610
Received: 17 August 2012 / Revised: 26 October 2012 / Accepted: 30 October 2012 / Published: 6 November 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (606 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Vitamin D is known to increase Ca absorption in adults. However, the threshold vitamin D status to benefit Ca absorption is lower than the target vitamin D status for higher bone mineral density and lower fracture risk, pointing to another pathway for vitamin
[...] Read more.
Vitamin D is known to increase Ca absorption in adults. However, the threshold vitamin D status to benefit Ca absorption is lower than the target vitamin D status for higher bone mineral density and lower fracture risk, pointing to another pathway for vitamin D to benefit bone. One possibility is by affecting osteoblast and osteoclasts directly. Vitamin D-related bone metabolism may also be affected by soy isoflavones, which selectively bind to the estrogen receptor β and may reduce bone loss in postmenopausal women. We discuss a possible synergistic effect of soy isoflavones and vitamin D on bone by affecting osteoblast and osteoclast formation and activity in postmenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Minerals)
Open AccessReview Lipophilic Micronutrients and Adipose Tissue Biology
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1622-1649; doi:10.3390/nu4111622
Received: 5 September 2012 / Revised: 6 October 2012 / Accepted: 27 October 2012 / Published: 6 November 2012
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lipophilic micronutrients (LM) constitute a large family of molecules including several vitamins (A, D, E, K) and carotenoids. Their ability to regulate gene expression is becoming increasingly clear and constitutes an important part of nutrigenomics. Interestingly, adipose tissue is not only a main
[...] Read more.
Lipophilic micronutrients (LM) constitute a large family of molecules including several vitamins (A, D, E, K) and carotenoids. Their ability to regulate gene expression is becoming increasingly clear and constitutes an important part of nutrigenomics. Interestingly, adipose tissue is not only a main storage site for these molecules within the body, but it is also subjected to the regulatory effects of LM. Indeed, several gene regulations have been described in adipose tissue that could strongly impact its biology with respect to the modulation of adipogenesis, inflammatory status, or energy homeostasis and metabolism, among others. The repercussions in terms of health effects of such regulations in the context of obesity and associated pathologies represent an exciting and emerging field of research. The present review will focus on the regulatory effects of vitamin A, D, E and K as well as carotenoids on adipose tissue biology and physiology, notably in the context of obesity and associated disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics)
Open AccessReview Insulinotropic and Muscle Protein Synthetic Effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acids: Potential Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes and Sarcopenia
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1664-1678; doi:10.3390/nu4111664
Received: 3 September 2012 / Revised: 29 October 2012 / Accepted: 1 November 2012 / Published: 8 November 2012
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The loss of muscle mass and strength with aging (i.e., sarcopenia) has a negative effect on functional independence and overall quality of life. One main contributing factor to sarcopenia is the reduced ability to increase skeletal muscle protein synthesis in response
[...] Read more.
The loss of muscle mass and strength with aging (i.e., sarcopenia) has a negative effect on functional independence and overall quality of life. One main contributing factor to sarcopenia is the reduced ability to increase skeletal muscle protein synthesis in response to habitual feeding, possibly due to a reduction in postprandial insulin release and an increase in insulin resistance. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), primarily leucine, increases the activation of pathways involved in muscle protein synthesis through insulin-dependent and independent mechanisms, which may help counteract the “anabolic resistance” to feeding in older adults. Leucine exhibits strong insulinotropic characteristics, which may increase amino acid availability for muscle protein synthesis, reduce muscle protein breakdown, and enhance glucose disposal to help maintain blood glucose homeostasis. Full article
Open AccessReview The Impact of Changes in Health and Social Care on Enteral Feeding in the Community
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1709-1722; doi:10.3390/nu4111709
Received: 14 September 2012 / Revised: 1 November 2012 / Accepted: 7 November 2012 / Published: 13 November 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper examines the impact of the changes to health and social care on enteral feeding in the community, outlines implications for practice and offers recommendations to ameliorate the challenges. It is now clear that there have been significant changes especially in the
[...] Read more.
This paper examines the impact of the changes to health and social care on enteral feeding in the community, outlines implications for practice and offers recommendations to ameliorate the challenges. It is now clear that there have been significant changes especially in the last 10 years in health and social care provisions in the UK with an overarching effect on enteral nutrition in the community. Advances in technology, increasing demand and treatment costs, the need for improvement in quality, economic challenges, market forces, political influences and more choices for patients are some of the factors driving the change. Government’s vision of a modern system of health and social care is based on initiatives such as clinically led commissioning, establishment of Monitor, shifting care from acute hospitals to community settings, integrating health and social care provisions, Quality, Innovation, Productivity and Prevention (QIPP) program and the concept of “Big Society”. These strategies which are encapsulated in various guidelines, policies and legislation, including the health and social care Act, 2012 are clarified. The future challenges and opportunities brought on by these changes for healthcare professionals and patients who access enteral nutrition in the community are discussed and recommendations to improve practice are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enteral Nutrition)
Open AccessReview History of U.S. Iodine Fortification and Supplementation
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1740-1746; doi:10.3390/nu4111740
Received: 10 October 2012 / Revised: 1 November 2012 / Accepted: 7 November 2012 / Published: 13 November 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (284 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Iodine is a micronutrient required for thyroid hormone production. This review highlights the history of the discovery of iodine and its uses, discusses the sources of iodine nutrition, and summarizes the current recommendations for iodine intake with a focus on women of childbearing
[...] Read more.
Iodine is a micronutrient required for thyroid hormone production. This review highlights the history of the discovery of iodine and its uses, discusses the sources of iodine nutrition, and summarizes the current recommendations for iodine intake with a focus on women of childbearing age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Iodine Supplementation)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCorrection Correction: Brown, K., et al. Diet-Induced Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota and the Effects on Immunity and Disease. Nutrients 2012, 4, 1095–1119
Nutrients 2012, 4(11), 1552-1553; doi:10.3390/nu4111552
Received: 17 October 2012 / Accepted: 23 October 2012 / Published: 26 October 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract We have found following errors in paper [1] which has been published in Nutrients, the following references should be cited as. [...] Full article

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