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Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1279; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091279

Association between Cognitive Restraint, Uncontrolled Eating, Emotional Eating and BMI and the Amount of Food Wasted in Early Adolescent Girls

1
Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
2
University of Hawai’i Cancer Center, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
3
School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2035, USA
4
Department of Complementary & Integrative Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawai’i at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract

Understanding of behavioral factors associated with obesity is of importance in addressing this issue. This study examined the association between cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and body mass index (BMI) and amount of food plated, consumed, leftovers, and leftover food thrown into the trash (food wasted) in early adolescent girls nine to 13 years in O’ahu, Hawai’i (n = 93). Food plated, consumed, leftovers, and food wasted were estimated using a three-day mobile food record™ (mFR). Weight and height were measured to compute BMI (kg/m2). The three-factor eating questionnaire provided a score from 0 to 100 for cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. Higher scores are indicative of greater cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. Pearson’s correlations were computed to examine the relationship between three factor eating scores and BMI. General linear models were conducted to examine the effect of each of three-factor eating scores on food plated, consumed, leftovers, and food wasted. Cognitive restraint was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.36, p < 0.001) and with BMI z-score (r = 0.40, p < 0.001). There were no associations between three-factor eating scores and food plated, consumed, leftovers, and food wasted at lunch. However, at dinner, total energy plated, left over, and food wasted increased by 4.24 kcal/day (p = 0.030), 1.67 kcal/day (p = 0.002), and 0.93 kcal/day (p = 0.031), respectively, with a unit increase in uncontrolled eating score. Similarly, total energy plated and energy left over at dinner increased by 3.40 kcal/day (p = 0.045) and 1.51 kcal/day (p = 0.001), respectively, with a unit increase in emotional eating score. Additional research should examine the specific roles of cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, emotional eating and food waste in the development of obesity in adolescents. View Full-Text
Keywords: early adolescents; mobile food record; food waste; plate waste; eating behavior; portion size; dietary assessment; uncontrolled eating; cognitive restraint; emotional eating early adolescents; mobile food record; food waste; plate waste; eating behavior; portion size; dietary assessment; uncontrolled eating; cognitive restraint; emotional eating
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Banna, J.C.; Panizza, C.E.; Boushey, C.J.; Delp, E.J.; Lim, E. Association between Cognitive Restraint, Uncontrolled Eating, Emotional Eating and BMI and the Amount of Food Wasted in Early Adolescent Girls. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1279.

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